Discussion:
Erdogan denies there is torture in Turkey
(too old to reply)
Ali Asker
2004-10-03 01:10:54 UTC
Permalink
Erdogan denies there is torture in Turkey: report

01/10/2004 AFP
Days before the European Union publishes a report about the progress
of reforms in Turkey, Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan has denied
that torture takes place in his country.

Turkey did not carry out torture and human rights groups who claimed
otherwise were "blinded by ideology", Erdogan told the German
newspaper Der Tagesspiegel in an advance extract of its Saturday
edition.

The EU report, which is due to be published next Wednesday but has
been seen by France's Le Monde newspaper and AFP, is crucial to
Turkey's hopes of joining the European Union.

It says "although torture is no longer systematic, numerous cases of
torture and in particular ill-treatment still continue to occur and
further efforts will be required to eradicate such practice".

Although the German newspaper had not seen the EU report before it
interviewed Erdogan, he was asked about reports from human rights
groups that torture still took place in Turkey.

"There is no torture in my country," Erdogan said.

"In all these reports about torture, what is missing is proof. There
is no systematic torture. That is also what the (EU) investigations
showed, which Commissioner (Guenter) Verheugen ordered after his visit
to the PKK area."

The Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK), now known as KONGRA-GEL, has been
fighting rule from Ankara for 20 years.

Asked if reform would continue even if the EU decided against inviting
Turkey to membership talks, Erdogan told the paper: "I don't even want
to think about that possibility. That would be a tough blow for me
personally and for my people."

Erdogan will receive a prestigious prize in Berlin on Sunday for
showing courage and vision in the reform process.

http://www.kurdishmedia.com/
mark rivers
2004-10-03 15:46:29 UTC
Permalink
+++++++++++++++++


From: Ali Asker (***@lycos.com)
Subject: Re: Kuwerdish contribution to Oscar 2005
This is the only article in this thread
View: Original Format
Newsgroups: soc.culture.iranian, soc.culture.kurdish,
soc.culture.turkish, soc.culture.iraq
Date: 2004-10-02 04:55:12 PST


We are the TERRORISTS...

We will divide Iran, Turkey, Syria and Iraq in to the pieces until
ever single individual is free from thought control, torture and
brain-washing! Every nation should have their own land where they can
practice their own culture. Iran has consist of about 20 some
different nations and we will tore them in to 20 different countries
and give mollahs a small land where they can practice their barbaric
religion to themselves and only harm temselves.

WE WILL BREAK IRAN IN TO THE PIECES!!!


+++++++++++++=


This son-of-a-bitch is a terrorist, a raper, torturer and killer of
innocent and defeseless people to advance the imperialistic aims of
his/her terrorist organization, PKK/KADEK terrorist oranization; has
no right to say anything except to sit by his lawyer in the court of
law to hear his sentense announced for the crimes he/she committed.

***@hotmail.com (Ali Asker), a thug of PKK/KADEK terrorist
organization, a full-time, professional and unconditional hater and
murderer of innocent citizens of the Democratic Republic of Turkey,
posts an anti-Turkish hate propaganda fabricated by mouth-pieces of
the same PKK/KADEK terrorist organization which, with the support of
the enemies of Turkey (Syria, Belgium, Sweden, Netherlands,
Switzerland, Denmark, France, Greece and others) and with the income
it obtained from major illegal drug trafficking to Europe, robberies,
extortions, etc. murdered nearly 40 thousands innocent human beings in
Turkey and ruined the health and property of many thousands of others
to destroy democratic goverment of the Republic of Turkey and
establish a marxist, lennist, communist PKK/KADEK dictatorship in
South East Turkey.This is against the laws of all countries in the
World including Turkey. Any country, as well as Turkey, will defend
itself against such terrorism as a most legitimate and legal right.


To hell with you all PKK/KADEK terrorists !!!!!

PKK/KADEK is not a democratically elected represantative of Kurdish
citizens of Turkey. Democratically elected represantatives of the
citizens of Turkey of Kurdish descend are in the goverment as MPs,
ministers, PMs, presidents, judges, etc., certainly not as terrorists
murdering innocent human beings. Plus, all citizens of Turkey of
Kurdish descend, like everybody else, are serving their country as
soldiers, officers and generals in the military, police officers,
lawyers and judges in the law enforcement organizations, pursuing
their lives as business man and woman, professional careers in the
private business and goverment institutions. And, none of them feel
they have to murder innocent human beings "to defend themselves". All
citizen of Turkey, regardless of race, language, religion, gender,
etc., have their undeniable right and freedom under the law to defend
their rights and freedoms, pursue solutions for the problems they
think they have by only legal, peacefull and democratic ways and
means, definitely not "whatever means is possible" and certainly not
by terrorism.





http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk3.htm



What is the PKK/KADEK ?

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The PKK (Kurdish acronym for the "Kurdistan Workers' Party"), formed
in 1978 by Abdullah Öcalan, is the most notorious terror organization
in the world. It has been waging a vicious campaign of terror against
Turkey since 1984 with the external support of certain states and
circles whose aim is to destabilize Turkey.

The PKK was identified as one of the 30 main terrorist organizations
in the world by the US Secretary of State in October 1997, and it was
also described in the same way in US State Department "Patterns of
Global Terrorism" reports.

PKK's terrorist activities have resulted, to date, in the death of
thousands of people, including women, the elderly, children and in
many instances even infants. The PKK has also murdered over one
hundred school teachers, who became inevitable targets of the
terrorists since it was judged that PKK's subversive views could be
most easily imposed on the uneducated and the ignorant. Lists giving
the figures of ordinary individuals and public servants, ruthlessly
killed or maimed by the PKK terrorists, are in annex.

The PKK has employed murder, intimidation, kidnapping and destruction
to achieve its nefarious objectives. It targets ordinary people,
because it aims to subjugate the local population in southeastern
Turkey into supporting its evil deeds. The PKK has attacked the entire
inhabitants of villages in southeast Anatolia. These attacks are also
designed to make the region uninhabitable. The PKK destroys schools,
sets forests on fire, blows up railways and bridges, plants mines on
roads, burns down construction machinery, and demolishes health
centers. A list containing the figures of material damage caused by
PKK's terrorist attacks is also in annex.

In response, the authorities trained the villagers to defend
themselves and also moved some people to locations where they would be
safer. These two measures, intended to protect the local population
against terrorism, have been at the center of a misinformation
campaign by the PKK and its sympathizers.

The PKK indiscriminately murders the very people on whose behalf it
purports to act : Turkish citizens of Kurdish origin. Ironically, the
PKK regards Masud Barzani's Kurdish Democratic Party and Jalal
Talabani's Patriotic Union of Kurdistan, the two main Kurdish
groupings in northern Iraq, as its adversaries.

Due to its ability to strike Turkey from Syria and (after the 1991
Gulf War) northern Iraq, the PKK proved for some time a serious threat
to law and order and claimed many victims. Following its operations
against PKK facilities in northern Iraq Turkey restored law and order
throughout the southeastern provinces.

The PKK has been supported and sheltered by some of Turkey's
neighbors, as well as by some others outside the region. Syria and
Greece are the principal countries that have been supporting the PKK
for years. However, with the signing of Adana memorandum on October
20, 1998, the Syrian connection has been broken. Syrian authorities
have promised not to support terrorist activities against Turkey and
taken some steps in this direction. Turkey closely monitors Syrian
compliance with the Adana agreement. Yet, Greece, a NATO ally, backs
the PKK and its affiliates by every means at its disposal. Confessions
and testimonies of dozens of PKK militants arrested in Turkey reveal
that Greek support to PKK terrorism goes much beyond than what was
generally estimated. Most recently, revelations made by the PKK member
Fethi Demir and by ?emdin Sak›k, PKK's "second man" captured in
northern Iraq, have helped to confirm concretely the continuing Greek
support to the PKK. The statement made by Greek Premier Simitis on
November 26, 1998, leaves no room for doubt about the position of
Greece vis-a-vis the PKK : "the PKK is an organization fighting for
the rights of the Kurdish minority and using various means to reach
this end." Can there be a more explicit approval of PKK terrorism?
There is of course other evidence and documentation concerning Greek
support to PKK terrorism.

The PKK terrorist organization, among others, employs the following
methods in the perpetration of its crimes:

a) Indiscriminate terror against the Turkish citizens of Kurdish
ethnic origin mainly in southeastern Turkey. Targets included
children, women, and the elderly. In some places PKK terrorists have
wiped out isolated, dispersed settlements and hamlets.

The aim is to force the local population into submission, to make them
provide sanctuary.

b) Indiscriminate terror against non-Kurdish population. The purpose
is to discredit the state institutions and to cause instability.

c) Terror against selected targets.

- Assassination of well known personalities, judicial, law enforcement
and security personnel.

- Assassination of state functionaries that provide services to the
local population in southeastern Turkey (civil servants, teachers,
health personnel, technical personnel, etc.).

- Assassination of village guardsmen and their families.

- Attacks on and occupation of official missions of Turkey abroad
(diplomatic, consular, commercial, tourism, etc.) as well as
headquarters or branch offices of semi-official institutions (Turkish
Airlines offices, banks, etc.).Attacks and acts of arson against the
houses, business facilities, associations and mosques of the Turkish
community living in western Europe, mainly in Germany. These acts of
terror are mostly carried out through proxies and front organizations
that are permitted by the authorities of the host countries to operate
in those states.

d) Terror within the ranks of the PKK, against informants and
repentant militants. Over the years, Öcalan has ordered the killing of
numerous PKK defectors and potential rivals. In the past decade, the
PKK has conducted assassinations, kidnappings and acts of arson in
Western Europe against former PKK members and defectors.
Assassinations of PKK defectors occurred in Sweden in 1984 and 1985;
in Denmark in 1985; in the Netherlands in 1987 and 1989; in Germany in
1986, 1987, and 1988.

e) Wider hit and run tactics against border posts and military
patrols.

f) Terrorist attacks against industrial infrastructure, oil
facilities, social facilities, and tourist sites with the aim of
weakening the Turkish economy and tarnishing its image. As part of
these terror acts, the PKK bombed passenger trains, ferryboats, and
buses. Several of these attacks resulted in civilian casualties. In
1993 and 1994 it also staged a series of kidnappings of foreigners in
southeastern Turkey to frighten away tourists and to embarrass the
Turkish government.

g) The head of the terrorist organization PKK has advocated and
ordered the use of suicide bombings against Turkish targets that
resulted in the deaths of security personnel and civilians, and
injuries to many more.

Obviously, such an enterprise of crime and violence like the PKK
requires colossal human and financial resources. As there are no
legitimate ways or means to obtain the required resources, PKK's only
option is to resort to illegal and illegitimate methods. Hence, the
PKK is heavily engaged in organized crime activities, including
extortion, drug trafficking, arms smuggling, human smuggling (illegal
immigration), and abduction of children. Such racketeering takes place
particularly in western Europe.

The PKK has been carrying out its activities abroad through its front
organization ERNK (Kurdish acronym for the "Kurdistan National
Liberation Front"), the so-called "Kurdistan Parliament in Exile", its
mouthpiece MED TV, and through other affiliated offices, centers and
associations.

Through these front establishments, the PKK organizes and carries out
its illegal activities. It also uses them to make its propaganda so as
to influence and mislead the public opinion in west European countries
for obtaining popular support to its subversive ends.

The abduction of children and youngsters in some European countries by
these front organizations deserves special mention. According to
police reports and press articles in several west European countries,
the PKK recently organized kidnappings of children, of 14-17 years of
age, in Varmland/Sweden through the ERNK, and in Celle/Germany through
"Kurdish Information Bureaus", or "Kurdish Culture Centers". The
statements of some of the abducted children, as well as press and
police reports reveal that the PKK kidnapped these youngsters, took
them to its camps, located in some other west European countries, and
forced them into training as terrorist militants.

The Turkish authorities spared no effort in drawing the attention of
the west European countries to such criminal and illegal activities of
the PKK, but unfortunately their calls to prevent these activities
usually fell on deaf ears. The complaints of the children's families,
however, attracted the attention of the public and thus created a
strong reaction towards what the PKK and its affiliates have in fact
been doing for years. The police in Sweden and Germany are now
investigating the matter.

Terrorism constitutes today one of the most serious violations of
human rights, in particular the fundamental right to life. By
murdering thousands of people, the PKK has violated the right to life.
Therefore, all the PKK terrorists, including their head Öcalan, must
answer in the court of law for their crimes.

All societies threatened by terrorism have the right to take
appropriate measures to protect themselves from violence and to
eradicate terrorism. Turkey's fight against the PKK terrorism is of
this nature and aims not only to maintain security and to protect its
citizens, but also to pave the way for economic and social development
in the regions where this is needed most. This fight against terrorism
observes democratic principles and the rule of law, with great care
being given to respect the rights of innocent civilians.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------




http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk4.htm


Who is Abdullah Öcalan ?

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Abdullah Öcalan was born in the province of Sanliurfa in 1949. He
speaks Turkish and has only a poor grasp of some Kurdish dialects. He
had a conventional education and his original wish was to be an
officer in the Turkish Army. He failed the entrance examination for
the military academy. He did, however, gain admission in 1971 to the
Ankara University Political Sciences Faculty. There, he joined the
underground movements trying to overthrow Turkey's parliamentary
system. He was expelled from the university for non-attendance and his
illegal activities.

The cell of terrorists which he controlled soon broke links with other
groups. It was known for its use of extreme violence and the "Apocu's"
(Followers of Abdullah Öcalan), as the PKK was called in its early
days, had a special trademark: they hacked off the noses of their
opponents. In the late 1970's, Öcalan collaborated closely with the
Soviet Union and with Syria which were attempting to create political
turmoil in Turkey. In 1980, Öcalan fled to Syria. He began to use
Syrian facilities, including camps in the Bekaa Valley, Lebanese
territory under Syrian control, to train terrorist groups for
cross-border terrorist attacks against targets in Turkey. He started
to inject an ethnic dimension to his terrorist activities, though this
usually had to be imposed on local populations by violent means,
including the kidnapping young men at gun point and then forcing them
to undergo indoctrination and join his movement. In August 1984,
Öcalan's terrorist groups began attacking Turkish police stations and
similar targets in the southeastern provinces north of the border with
Syria and Iraq.

The PKK operates along the familiar lines of traditional communist
parties and carries out terrorist activities under the rigid direction
of its Central Committee. Both its "political" and "military" wings
are controlled directly by Öcalan. As its sole head, Öcalan, has
callously masterminded thousands of PKK's terrorist activities against
Turkey and its people. As such, he has been responsible for thousands
of deaths, kidnappings, mutilations and attacks on innocent people
during his long years as a professional terrorist and murderer.

In October 1998, Turkey warned Syria that it would take action unless
it ceased its support for Öcalan and PKK terrorism. It formally
requested the extradition of Öcalan to Turkey. As a result, Öcalan was
compelled to leave Syria where he had been given shelter for almost
two decades. Furthermore, by an agreement signed between the two
countries on October 20, 1998 in Adana/Turkey, the Syrian Government
for the first time designated the PKK as a terrorist organization, and
pledged not to allow the presence and the activities of the PKK on its
territory. Later, Öcalan was forced to leave Moscow, where he had
escaped from Syria, following political and diplomatic contacts
between Turkey and the Russian Federation.

Öcalan was apprehended in Rome while trying to illegally enter Italy
with a false passport on November 12, 1998. As the British Government
put it, Öcalan's arrest was "a significant advance in the
international community's fight against terrorism."

Öcalan is not only a terrorist but also a common criminal, being
sought by the Turkish courts under charges of homicide and incitement
to homicide. There is thus a red corner bulletin for him issued by the
Interpol. In accordance with a court decision given in 1990, Germany
also had an arrest warrant on Öcalan again for homicide and incitement
to homicide.

All democratic, law-abiding countries as well as international
institutions are obligated to take a consistent and firm stance in
combating terrorism and bringing terrorists to justice. Under
obligations and commitments within the framework of the United
Nations, the Council of Europe, the OSCE, the NATO, and the EU, no
country or government can provide terrorists with safe-haven or evade
its responsibilities in the efforts to eliminate terrorism. Therefore,
Öcalan should never be granted political asylum anywhere and he has to
be extradited to Turkey to face trial for his crimes against Turkish
citizens.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------






http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk5.htm



PKK's Involvement in Organized Crimes

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The PKK engages in organized crimes such as drug trafficking and arms
smuggling, extortion, human smuggling, abduction of children and money
laundering in an attempt to recruit militants and to obtain financial
resources needed to carry out its terrorist activities.

The "Sputnik Operation" conducted in a coordinated fashion in some
European countries in September 1996 exposed PKK's links with
organized crime and money laundering activities.

On the other hand, it is known that the PKK, together with other
organized crime gangs, is also behind the recent wave of illegal
immigration to Italy. PKK's objective is to create international
pressure and antipathy against Turkey.

Moreover, the PKK plays an important role in drug trafficking which
constitutes one of the most evil crimes of our age. The British weekly
magazine "The Spectator" underlined this fact in its 28 November-5
December 1998 issue by saying that "…According to the British security
services sources the PKK is responsible for 40 percent of the heroin
sold in the European Union…" .

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------





http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk6.htm




Drug Trafficking and Terrorist Organizations

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

All terrorist organizations need to raise funds to sustain their
violent activities and resort to illegal means to finance their
crimes. Drug trafficking comes at the top of this list of illegal
money raising activities, followed by robbery, extortion, kidnapping,
blackmailing and arms smuggling.

In recent years, it has become increasingly evident that terrorism and
drug trafficking are intertwined. The terms "narco-terrorism" and
"narco-terrorists" have started to gain circulation in describing the
link between terrorist organizations and narcotics smugglers. This
fact is illustrated by certain international documents. The UN
Convention Against Illicit Traffic In Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic
Substances (1988) refers to the relationship between illicit drug
traffic and other organized criminal activities which undermine the
stability, security and legitimacy of sovereign states.

Paragraph 5 of the UN International Narcotics Control Board (INCB)'s
1992 report points out that "illicit cultivation of narcotic plants
and illicit trafficking in drugs continue to be a threat to the
political, economic and social stability of several countries. Links
appear to exist between illicit cultivation and drug trafficking and
the activities of subversive organizations in some countries."

The 1993 INCB report draws attention to the organic connections
between drug cartels and terrorist organizations, and also to the
globalization of drug smuggling. The successive INCB reports point out
that these drug cartels concentrate their activities in ethnically and
economically troubled regions of the world. It is no coincidence that
terrorist organizations thrive in the very same regions.

The Vienna Declaration and Program of Action adopted at the World
Conference on Human Rights (25 June 1993) stresses that "the acts,
methods and practices of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations
as well as linkage in some countries to drug trafficking are
activities aimed at the destruction of human rights, fundamental
freedoms and democracy, threatening territorial integrity, security of
states and destabilizing legitimately constituted governments, and the
international community should take the necessary steps to enhance
cooperation to prevent and combat terrorism."

The Final Communiqué of the Council of Europe Pompidou Group 2nd
Pan-European Ministerial Conference (Strasbourg, 4 February 1994)
underlines the fact that "considering the continuous increase in and
the spread of drug trafficking incidents, the involvement of violent
organizations in such activities constitute a serious threat to the
contemporary society" (Art.9), and thus, "it is vital for the security
forces to combat terrorism effectively" (Art.l5).

The UN Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism
adopted at the 49th session of the General Assembly, underlines the
concern by the international community at the growing and dangerous
links between terrorists groups, drug traffickers and their
paramilitary gangs which have resorted to all types of violence, thus
endangering the constitutional order of States and violating basic
human rights. This Declaration also emphasizes the desirability of
closer cooperation and coordination among States in combating crimes
closely connected with terrorism, including drug trafficking, unlawful
arms trade, money laundering and smuggling of nuclear and other
potentially deadly materials.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------




http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk8.htm


Foreign Press Reports

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


* In January 1992, the Bremen Police arrested a "Kurd" selling drugs.
The police found a bunch of keys in his pocket, which belonged to an
apartment where "Kurds" lived. Hanging on the walls of the said
apartment were posters of the PKK and its leader Abdullah Öcalan. The
police also found some clues suggesting that the PKK finances its
armed struggle by the heroin trade (SAT-1 TV, 24 Hours, 6 January
1992).

* In 1992, a total number of 2,069 drug addicts died in Germany. In
the same year, the German police apprehended some children aged 10-12,
coming from southeastern Turkey and selling drugs in Hamburg. A child
of 8 carrying a firearm was also arrested. All these children
confessed that the PKK was using them to sell drugs, since they did
not have penal responsibility. The police seized 30 kg. of heroin from
a "Kurd" who was said to have transferred DM 150,000 to his partners.
The estimated figure the PKK earns from the narcotics trade is more
than 56 million DM (VOX TV ; Germany, 12 February 1993).

* In 1993, more than 50 PKK members were arrested by the Essen Police
of Germany. The Federal Criminal Department in Wiesbaden found out
that the PKK was organizing drug trafficking in Germany and the
narcotics trade in Hamburg, Bremen, Frankfurt and Essen was under the
control of the PKK (German Daily "NRZ," 30 March 1993).

* The Hamburg Criminal Police arrested a band of Kurdish drug
smugglers on 15 September 1993. 11-year-old children, who were also
arrested with the other members of the band, later confessed to the
police that the PKK illegally brought them from Turkey to Germany in
order to make them sell drugs for the organization (Hamburg Local TV
Broadcast, 15 September 1993).

* Three years of intensive police investigation by the Slagelse Police
and the Narcotics Section of the National Police Force in Denmark
resulted in the solution of several armed robberies whose spoils were
used to finance narcotics purchases. The police captured a Danish
person, who had links with two Turkish narcotics kingpins living in
Denmark. During the trial the close relationship between these people
and the PKK was proven. The superintendent Niels Bech of the National
Police Force expressed that large parts of the profits from the
narcotics sales in Denmark have returned to Turkey. In one case DDK
140,000 were sent to Turkey and kilos of heroin was sent to Europe in
return (Danish Daily, "Berlingske Tidende," 31 October 1993).

* Two young PKK members (aged 14 and 16) were caught by the police
selling drugs at the Trabrennbahn Train Station near Wandsbeck on 26
September 1994 ("Bild-Hamburg" 28 September 1994).

* On 5-6 October 1994 the "Bild" reported that narcotics were being
distributed from Jork in Alten Land to Northern Germany and that the
Kurdish dealers transferred 15 million DM to their collaborators in
Turkey.

* On 24 October 1994 the German magazine "Focus" wrote that in the
last 9 years 315 PKK members were involved in drug trafficking around
Europe, 154 of whom were captured in Germany.

* Ralf Brottscheller, the Senator of Interior of Bremen, accused the
PKK of extortion and organized narcotics smuggling ("Focus," 18
September 1995).

* In France, the Aulnay Sous Bois Public Security Units and Paris
Bureau of Combating Narcotics Trafficking conducted an operation which
was completed after long and careful preparations of 18 months. 30
people involved in narcotics trafficking on behalf of the PKK and the
Mafia active in France and Belgium were taken into custody after the
operation (French Press, 4 November 1996).

* The Belgian Gendarmerie raided a camp in Zutendaal/Genk, in which
the PKK militants were being trained, and apprehended 35 people,
including children and some internationally wanted criminals
("Arnhemse Courant," 22 November 1996).

* The administrators of a facade company helping the PKK's activities
in France were taken into custody in Paris (French Press, 25 February
1997).

* The "Observatoire Geopolitique Des Drogues" noted in its monthly
report that the biggest heroin seizure in Hungary to date was made on
December 12, 1996, aboard a Turkish bus belonging to the Toros Line
company. The Turkish traffickers, caught with 42 kg. heroin turned out
to be "Kurds." The report mentions the case of a Romanian citizen who,
upon his arrest with 2 kg. heroin by the Turkish police in Edirne in
September 1995, admitted that he was running for the PKK drugs in one
direction and explosives in the other.

The report also notes that 65 percent of the drugs confiscated by the
Romanian customs officers are found on passenger vehicles and that
"every time Romanian police make a drug haul at a Turkish company,
Kurds are involved" ("The Geopolitical Drug Dispatch", No. 65, March
1997).

* A high level member of the PKK, known as the PKK chief in the
Hannover area, was arrested in Berlin. He had been wanted by the
German police on charges of arson attacks, and damage to private
property. The police found out evidence regarding the PKK's
involvement in illicit labor trafficking ("Berliner Zeitung" 4 April
1997).

* 20 refugees were arrested in a police raid on a refugee hostel which
was discovered to be a PKK base, in Grimma, Bahren. The operation was
conducted jointly by the German police and experts from the Federal
Criminal Department. The police confiscated various fire arms,
thousands of DM and receipts. These immigrants were actively involved
in the activities of the PKK and its facade branches (German Press, 4
April 1997).

* The Bavarian police conducted a series of operations against the PKK
militants in refugee camps, arrested 2, and took into custody 17 of
them (Statement by Straubing Police Directorate dated 17 June 1997).

* The PKK transfers people, weapons and drugs through the FRY (Former
Republic of Yugoslavia) and purchases weapons in return (Croatian
daily "Vjesnik" August 1997).

* The "Focus" magazine remarked on 23 March 1998 that members of the
PKK invested the money laundered from drug trafficking and extortion
in the real estate market in Celle, Germany.

* On August 1, 1998, the Croatian and Slovenian security forces
jointly confiscated 38 kg. of heroin in a vehicle bound for western
Europe. According to the Croatian reports, the shipment of the heroin
was realized by Turkish citizens "who are most probably members of the
PKK" This is consistent with the statements made by Slovenian security
forces who have pointed to a "reasonable suspicion" that a member of
the PKK is involved in the smuggling (Croatian and Slovenian press
reviews, 6 August 1998).

* Four "Kurdish" people were captured with 2.6 kg. heroin, the largest
amount of narcotics ever captured in west Norway. It is thought that
the four people caught were merely couriers and that the trafficking
was carried out by a "Turkish/Kurdish" network (Bergen, 7 August
1998).

* "…The PKK has financed its war against Turkey by extortion and the
sale of heroin, and according to British security service sources it
is responsible for 40 percent of the heroin sold in the European
Union…" (British weekly magazine "The Spectator", 28 November-5
December 1998 issue).


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http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk9.htm



Reports of Foreign Police and Foreign Officials

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

* In January 1990, a PKK member was arrested in Switzerland for
selling drugs on behalf of the PKK. In the same month a 13-year-old
person, also linked to the PKK, was captured in the Netherlands and
was released as being too young to prosecute.

* A Turkish citizen of Kurdish origin, apprehended in France on 22
January 1991, confessed that he had been trading drugs in France on
behalf of the PKK and that the drugs were transported by trucks or
sometimes by tourist vehicles and then distributed to different cities
not only in France but in various other countries in Europe as well.

* After being arrested on 7 March 1991 in France, a "Kurdish" person
confessed that the drugs he was selling belonged to the PKK.

* Another Turkish citizen of "Kurdish" descent, captured with 48 kg.
of heroin in Arnheim in November 1991, was found out to be a PKK
member.

* The German Police reports underline the fact that l,103 kg. of
heroin was seized by the police in 1991 and 400 of 735 suspects
involved in the drug trading incidents were PKK members. This ratio
mounted to 450/735 in 1992 and 300/457 in 1993.

* The US Department of State Bureau of International Narcotics Matters
expressed in its International Narcotics Control Strategy Report
(1992) that the two-thirds of the people involved in drug trafficking
incidents in Europe are PKK-oriented.

* An active PKK member working as a truck driver, who was known to
have stood as a candidate in Bonn in the 1992 elections for the PKK's
so-called National Assembly, was seized in Troisdorf, Germany, while
transporting substantial amounts of drugs.

* In 1993, the police seized 200 kg. of heroin in London. Further
investigation revealed that the drug traders were working for the PKK.

* A police operation in Offenbach, Germany on 7 January 1993, led to
the seizure of 5 kilos of heroin. Among the seven people captured by
the police was a person known as the "PKK's accountant."

* As a consequence of the operations conducted by the German police in
Hamburg, Bremen and Bad Bramstad during May-October 1993, 15.7 kg. of
heroin was confiscated and 22 people were apprehended, including PKK
members and supporters. The criminals turned out to have requested
political asylum from the German authorities.

* 15 Turkish citizens with "Kurdish" descent were arrested in
connection with 1.6 kg. heroin seized by the German police in
Recklinghausen, Germany, on 27 October 1993. Among those were the
participants at pro-PKK demonstrations in Turkey.

* A message by the German Interpol dated October 26, 1993, pointed out
that six Turkish citizens with Kurdish origin were arrested on charges
of laundering the proceeds from drug trafficking in the Netherlands,
Spain, Italy and Germany. Large sums of cash, thought to be laundered
money, were captured by the German police.

* Another Turkish citizen of "Kurdish" origin, captured in Caracas,
Venezuela on 10 November 1993, while carrying 3.5 kg. of cocaine,
confessed that she was a PKK courier. This incident is said to prove
the links of the PKK with the drug cartels even in Latin America.

* The NCIS estimated that the 44 percent of 1993 budget of the PKK as
430 million French Francs, came from illicit drug trafficking.

* During a six-week campaign initiated by the Stuttgart city police in
January 1994, 76 people were apprehended, including some who had been
formerly prosecuted in Turkey because of their links with the
terrorist organization.

* On 17 August 1994 the German Criminal Authority informed the Turkish
Security Authorities that a political refugee, resident in Kiel, was
engaged in drug trade and money transfer to the PKK.

* The US Deputy Secretary of State in charge of narcotics, Ambassador
Robert Felbard, answering a question at a press briefing in February
1994 regarding the PKK supervision of drug trafficking in Europe and
the United States, stated that the US had quite a bit of information
about the PKK's involvement in the trafficking of heroin into Europe.

* The Amsterdam police, during an anti-drug operation on 11 December
1994, seized numerous firearms, machine guns, bombs and PKK documents
and arrested several PKK militants.

* The Bavarian Minister of Interior, Günter Beckstein, referring to
the 30 PKK militants captured in Europe during the last two years,
stated that the PKK has taken control of the European narcotics market
(Turkish daily, "Cumhuriyet," 31 July 1995).

* The Director of German Terrorism Research Forum, Rolp Tophoven, has
stated that a large majority of the people arrested on charges of
narcotics smuggling are of "Kurdish" descent, many of whom confess
committing the crime on behalf of the terrorist PKK (Turkish daily,
"Yeni Yüzy›l," 12 November 1995).

* Olivier Foll, another expert on international terrorism, noted that
the PKK members, when apprehended for illegal possession of narcotics,
confess to smuggling drugs for the PKK and exploit the "political"
dimension of the issue as an excuse for their crimes. Mr. Foll
criticized the "Kurdish" policies of some European statesmen who grant
concessions to the PKK (Turkish daily "Yeni Yüzy›l," 12 November
1995).

* During the Sputnik operation of September 18, 1996, the Belgian
police seized 350 million Belgian Francs that were thought to have
been the proceeds from narcotics trafficking. Seven people having ties
with the PKK were apprehended in connection with the crime. The
Sputnik operation also revealed that the MED-TV, the mouthpiece of the
PKK, is involved in PKK's money laundering activities. The MED-TV
representative in Germany was taken into custody as he was unable to
explain the source of the 500 million BF, used in financing the
station. It was later found that he was using revenues from drug
trafficking for financing not only the MED-TV but also the so-called
"Kurdistan Parliament in Exile" (KPE). The Belgian police seized many
firearms in the KPE building they searched.

* In August 1997, the German police conducted a comprehensive
operation against the PKK members in Cologne in which six members of
the PKK were arrested. After the operation, Cologne police officers
issued a statement emphsizing the fact that the PKK is involved in
organized crime including extortion in Germany to finance its acts of
terrorism.

* The Göttingen police of Germany, after a 14-month investigation,
managed to penetrate the drug smuggling network with two "Kurdish"
informers in May 1998 and found out that the revenues from 40 kg. of
heroin marketed were channeled to the PKK.

* The KDP (The Kurdistan Democratic Party of Masud Barzani) forces
discovered extensive narcotics farms in the Gali Pes Agha region of
northern Iraq, captured from the PKK in May 1997.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------





http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk10.htm



Turkish Police Reports

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

* A PKK member, captured by the police with 14.5 kg. of heroin on 1
September 1993, confessed that he was acting on behalf of the PKK
abroad, and that he was a drug-smuggler, transferring 30 percent of
the proceeds to the terrorist organization.

* Following the confiscation of 20.3 kg. of heroin in Duisburg,
Germany, two PKK supporters were arrested by the German police. This
triggered a police investigation in Turkey, which led to the seizure
of firearms and munitions in a vehicle owned by the same family in the
city of Mersin on 12 May 1993.

* A PKK militant of Iranian origin confessed that the terrorist
organization has drug production facilities in Iran and that Osman
Öcalan (the brother of Abdullah Öcalan and a leading figure of the
terrorist organization PKK) is in charge of the production of
narcotics which are later marketed mainly in Europe to raise money for
the organization.

* Two PKK militants, arrested with 30 kg. of heroin, expressed that
they were aiming to sell the drugs to provide financial contributions
to the PKK.

* The Turkish Security Forces seized 120 kg. of heroin and 40 kg. of
hemp seeds (cannabis) in a PKK shelter in southeastern Turkey.

* One PKK member, who was put in jail on 3 July 1993 for getting
involved in the terrorist acts of the PKK in Hakkari and released on
20 October 1993, was captured with 36 kg. of heroine, 140 kg. of
precursors and some other drug-producing material.

* Another member of the PKK, sentenced to 6 years of imprisonment,
confessed that he was in charge of establishing the links between the
drug smugglers and the terrorist organization.

* During the operations conducted by the Turkish security forces, two
people, captured with 48 kg. of hashish, were arrested as they were
found out to be involved in narco-trade so as to provide financial
support to the PKK.

* Another Turkish citizen said to be of "Kurdish-origin", caught by
the police in possession of 117 kilos of hashish in Istanbul, was
later found to have participated in the PKK-led attack on the Turkish
Consulate General in Frankfurt on March 1l, 1992.

* One Turkish citizen of "Kurdish-origin" apprehended in July 1994
confessed that he was involved in drug trafficking to raise money for
the PKK. The police, making use of the information he disclosed, were
able to arrest some other members of the terrorist organization.

* On 1 August 1994 a PKK member, apprehended in Diyarbak›r with 2 kg.
of heroin, acknowledged that he was selling drugs for the PKK. He also
informed the police that some PKK members were cultivating drugs and
gave the names of the places where hemp seeds (cannabis) were grown.
In further investigation the police captured 120,000 roots of hemp
seeds in a village named Dibek.

* On 21 August 1994 the Turkish security forces apprehended two people
with 150 kg. of hashish and considerable amounts of hemp seeds and
hashish growing material. The security forces also captured PKK
documents and propaganda material and two machine guns.

* Diyarbak›r Police, conducting an operation against the PKK on 17
July 1994, apprehended three people with 80 kg. of hashish, PKK
documents, a gun and three ERNK seals. These people confessed that the
PKK ordered them to sell the drugs and purchase firearms and food
supplies for the organization. The said people turned out to have
participated in various terror acts such as the rocket attack to and
storming of a police residence in Lice on 29 June, the bomb attack on
the residence of a judge in Diyarbak›r on 16 January 1994, and a bomb
attack on a police patrol car.

* Seven people captured in the city of Cizre on 23 March 1994 with
398.5 kilos of heroin confessed to smuggling narcotics on behalf of
the PKK.

* The security forces have had strong evidence suggesting that a
network composed of PKK militants is involved in drug trading in Zaho,
northern Iraq. The network is known to hand the drugs over to clients
either in Zaho or in Turkey. Therefore, it was not very surprising
that during the operation by the Turkish Armed Forces in northern Iraq
against the PKK, the Turkish army discovered a large farm where the
terrorists cultivated hemp (cannabis). The farm was located near the
PKK's Pirvela Camp in the Bahara valley. The Turkish military officers
announced that the amount of drugs captured during the operation in
northern Iraq reached 4.5 tons.

* In a raid on 7 March 1995 on the residence of a person, suspected by
the police of having contact with the PKK militants, the Turkish
police seized large amounts of drugs, drug precursor chemicals,
firearms and ammunitions.

* Three of the seven people caught with 21.5 kilos of heroin in
Hamburg, Germany, have been found out to have been formerly arrested
in Turkey on charges of PKK membership.

* The two people caught by the police with 20.6 kilos of narcotics in
‹zmir on August 5, 1996, have been found out to be running an
association linked to the PKK in the Netherlands.

* Another PKK sympathizer, who was captured with acetic anhydride, a
heroin precursor chemical, by the Turkish security forces in the city
of Van on March 24, 1998, was found to have been previously arrested
for providing logistic support to the PKK.

* The Turkish security forces have strong evidence that the PKK
militants, settled in the Iranian part of our common border, receive
commissions from the narcotics smugglers called "taxes or donations."


***


The role of the PKK in incidents given above is undeniable, both
because of the documents seized by the security forces and the
backgrounds of the arrested people. Still, in certain Western
countries, the activities of this terrorist organization, are
regrettably being tolerated.

After the prohibition of PKK in France and Germany towards the end of
1993, a wave of optimism emerged in Turkish public opinion that the
rest of the European countries would follow suit by adopting similar
measures. This, however, has not happened to date. Yet, it is clear
that the prohibition of the PKK and its front organizations in
European countries would also be in the interest of these countries.
The PKK is responsible for narcotics trafficking, extortion, robbery,
and illicit arms and human smuggling activities, and thus circumvent
the rule of law and compromises the security and stability of the
countries in which it operates. It is no coincidence that drug
trafficking cases predominantly occur in those countries where the
organization of the PKK is extensive and tolerated.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------





http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk11.htm


Is There A "Kurdish Question" in Turkey?

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

As the first melting pot and encounter point of many different
civilizations and cultures, present-day Turkey contains a multitude of
ethnic, religious and cultural elements. Turkey is proud of its great
heritage. This centuries-long shared way of life is perfectly
second-nature for the people of Turkey.

Yet, different ethnic identities, including the Kurdish, are
acknowledged and accepted in Turkey. The state does not categorize its
citizens along ethnic lines nor does it impose an ethnic identity on
them. Population censuses in Turkey never count people on the basis of
their ethnic origins. But, this does not prevent an individual citizen
to identify himself or herself in terms of a specific ethnic category.
That is a private affair and ultimately a matter of personal
preference. Public expressions and manifestations of ethnic identity
are prohibited neither by law nor by social custom. Folklore is rich
and colorful and local variations, customs and traditions are
protected and supported.

Turkey is a constitutional state governed by the rule of law.
Democracy rests on a parliamentary system of government, respect for
human rights and on the supremacy of law. Multi-party politics, free
elections, a growing tradition of local government mark the democratic
way of life in Turkey.

Constitutional citizenship is one of the principles upon which the
Turkish state was founded. The Turkish Constitution stipulates that
the State and the Nation are indivisible, and that all citizens
irrespective of their ethnic, racial or religious origin, are equal
before the law.

For historical and cultural reasons, and under stipulations of binding
international treaties, the concept of "minority" applies specifically
to certain groups of non-Moslem citizens. In fact, the social fabric
of Turkey is a unique real life case of the OSCE principle that "not
all ethnic, cultural, linguistic or religious differences necessarily
lead to the creation of national minorities". Our citizens of Kurdish
ethnic origin are not discriminated against and they feel themselves
to be equal members of the society. Many have risen to the highest
positions in the Republic. They share the same opportunities and the
same destiny as the rest of the population.

Ethnicity is not a factor in the political geography of Turkey. That
is, the predominant majority of the Turkish citizens of Kurdish
descent live in western Turkey, with the greatest concentration being
in Istanbul. Even in eastern and southeastern Turkey, the Turkish
citizens of Kurdish ethnic origin do not constitute a majority. The
unitary structure of the State reflects the equality and togetherness
of different geographic regions of Turkey.

Therefore, it is simply neither understandable nor acceptable for
Turkey to discuss "the respect for social, economic and legitimate
political aspirations of Kurds" as if the Turkish citizens of Kurdish
ethnic descent constitute a different and separate community. They are
citizens of a nation that has been sharing for centuries the same
values with respect to language, religion, culture and patriotic
identity, common history and the will for a mutual future.

It is of cardinal importance to differentiate between a militant
organization, which resorts systematically to terrorism as well as all
kinds of organized crime, and the phenomenon of Kurdish ethnicity. It
is evident that our citizens of Kurdish ethnic origin are law-abiding
people. Most of them live in western Turkey, drawn by economic
attraction. They are of their own choice integrated into the society
and its economic, social and cultural aspects. In Turkey, citizens of
all ethnic origins can rise to the highest political positions and
ranks such as cabinet ministers and members of parliament. Throughout
the centuries, much mixing has taken place through intermarriages.
Progress in industrial, cultural and social fields, as well as
urbanization, has also contributed to the voluntary and natural
process of integration.

The population in southeast Anatolia, like our citizens in other
regions of the country, participate fully in the political life of
Turkey; they freely make their voices heard in local administrations,
in the municipalities, the Parliament, and the central government
through elected representatives. It is nothing out of the ordinary for
the individuals of different ethnic origins to participate in the
political life of the country. Even the most militant circles concede
the fact that there are no obstacles to social mobility of individuals
from different ethnic origins to any profession or career, whether
public or private.

The fundamental rights and freedoms of all Turkish citizens are
secured by the relevant provisions of the Constitution. However, those
rights have been threatened by the PKK, creating terror among the
populace.

None of our citizens of Kurdish ethnic origin, notwithstanding
allegations to the contrary, who publicly or politically asserts
his/her Kurdish ethnic identity risks harassment or persecution.
However, acts or statements made against the "territorial integrity"
of Turkey are subject to legal prosecution under the law. If these
allegations were true, none of the publications in Kurdish whose
contents are full of assertions of Kurdish ethnic identity would have
been tolerated by the authorities.

In the same vein, Turkey is often accused of refusing to negotiate
with the terrorist organization PKK. These accusations contradict the
fundamental rules of international law. Negotiating with a terrorist
organization, responsible for thousands of murders, would be
tantamount to justifying and encouraging terrorism.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------





http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk12.htm



Is the Use of Kurdish Banned in Turkey ?

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Contrary to the allegations of some biased quarters, there is no
restriction on the use of languages in Turkey. Presently, there are
many private radio-TV stations broadcasting and numerous books and
journals published both in Turkish and in various dialects of
"Kurdish" throughout the country. It should be mentioned here that
"Kurdish" can be hardly depicted as "a single language" linguistically
or socially. Many scholars point out the fact that there are many
different local languages and dialects used in southeastern Turkey
such as Zaza and Kirmanchi which are only as close to each other as
French and English. These local languages and dialects are so
dissimilar that people living in one village cannot even communicate
with others from a neighboring village. As a result, Turkish has
become the sole medium of communication in the region. It is ironic
that Turkish is also used in PKK's militant training camps and in the
communication between its headquarters and terrorists as their common
language.

The official language of the Republic of Turkey is Turkish, but
Armenian, Ladino, Greek, the different dialects of "Kurdish", etc. are
spoken freely in daily life. There is only one official language in
the country. However, in this respect Turkey does not constitute a
unique and exceptional case either in Europe or among other democratic
countries.

It should also be underlined that expressions of ethnic identity such
as the use of local languages are viewed as private domain matters.
Thus, they are not the subject of law and are therefore not regulated
by the state. The Turkish language is the language of the Republic of
Turkey and is consequently the only formal language of education and
instruction. The same is true in most democracies. Though it is
possible to help promote them, it is neither realistic nor feasible to
make local tongues official languages of the State.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------





http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk13.htm


Socio-Economic Development of Southeastern Turkey and the
Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Atatürk Dam is the largest component of the Southeastern Anatolia
Project (GAP).

The Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP), consisting of a complex
system of dams, waterworks, irrigation and hydraulic energy network is
a colossal investment of Turkey, the biggest regional initiative ever
attempted in Turkey. It aims at changing the whole complexion of the
arid geography and consequently, the social and economic backwardness
of southeastern Anatolia. The Turkish Government has always believed
that one of the best tools in the struggle against terrorism is
economic development. It is no accident that the region in which the
PKK operates is also the least economically developed part of Turkey.
The Turkish Government is determined to rectify that.

It is a fact that there are socio-economic regional imbalances in
Turkey as in every developing, even some developed countries. Rough
geographic and climatic conditions of southeastern Turkey are the main
factors in this imbalance. Terrorism and economic backwardness of the
region affect all our citizens indiscriminately. Despite many
governmental incentives and low taxation policies, the private sector
had in the past been reluctant to invest in the region, mainly due to
security concerns. Public sector has taken the place of the private
sector and many investments have already been realized by the State.
"GAP" is the best example of that. Government investment in this
region is much higher than the amount of taxes collected there. "GAP"
is a gigantic economic step forward which will change the destiny of
the region. Agricultural production of Turkey will rise by several
folds when this project, which is both energy and irrigation oriented,
is completed. Yet, its important impact is not expected only on
agricultural production, but also on industry, construction, services,
as well as on the Gross Regional Product and employment. When the
project is completed, per capita income will increase three times, and
3.3 million jobs will be created.

The Southeastern Anatolia Project constitutes an integrated project
which contributes significantly to the realization of national targets
for the utilization of development potentials, self-induced economic
growth, social stability and enhancement of export possibilities, and
at the same time aims at the promotion of the principle of sustainable
human development; thus, human development is the core of sustainable
development in the "GAP" region. In this context, the "GAP Social
Action Plan" consists of the basic policies, targets, strategies and
implementation measures for ensuring the social development of the
region through a human-centered approach emphasizing sustainability of
the development. This people-centered development aims to remove the
gap between the project area and the more developed regions in Turkey
and to promote equitable development.

This ambitious socio-economic development drive also explains why the
PKK has been targeting civilians as well as economic and social
projects. PKK's aim is both to terrorize the local population and to
keep the region economically and socially backward so as to recruit
more militants into its own ranks. However, this is being reversed as
the GAP began to bear its fruits. For example, although the so-called
head of the PKK is from ?anl›urfa, there has never been a terrorist
act there, because it is an economically powerful settlement. The
state of emergency still has to continue in some of the provinces of
southeastern Turkey. It is the direct consequence and explicit proof
of the PKK terrorism in the region. It is of utmost importance for
Turkey to augment the allocation of human and financial resources for
the socio-economic development of this region. The precondition to
achieve this task is the eradication of the PKK terrorist
organization.

Eradication of terrorism will not only put an end to the deliberate
devastation by terrorists of the underdeveloped regions of Turkey, but
also release important resources for developmental activity in those
very regions. While terrorism might be viewed as a consequence of
certain underlying causes, it is also incontestably true that
terrorism is itself the main reason of poverty and underdevelopment of
those areas where it is perpetrated.

In sum, our citizens of all ethnic origins -Turkish, Kurdish and
others- living together for more than ten centuries in Turkey have
created a society of patriotic citizens sharing common values. They
established their own nation-state, the Turkish Republic, following
the War of Independence. Ethnic descent is not considered a cause of
discrimination or privilege just as in all modern nation States on the
globe.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ali Asker
2004-10-04 07:46:47 UTC
Permalink
The Universe and Multiple Reality explains to the non-scientist reader
in understandable, non-mathematical language the paradox of
Schrödinger's Cat, the two-slit experiment, and recent developments in
quantum physics and cosmology.
Post by mark rivers
+++++++++++++++++
Subject: Re: Kuwerdish contribution to Oscar 2005
This is the only article in this thread
View: Original Format
Newsgroups: soc.culture.iranian, soc.culture.kurdish,
soc.culture.turkish, soc.culture.iraq
Date: 2004-10-02 04:55:12 PST
We are the TERRORISTS...
We will divide Iran, Turkey, Syria and Iraq in to the pieces until
ever single individual is free from thought control, torture and
brain-washing! Every nation should have their own land where they can
practice their own culture. Iran has consist of about 20 some
different nations and we will tore them in to 20 different countries
and give mollahs a small land where they can practice their barbaric
religion to themselves and only harm temselves.
WE WILL BREAK IRAN IN TO THE PIECES!!!
+++++++++++++=
This son-of-a-bitch is a terrorist, a raper, torturer and killer of
innocent and defeseless people to advance the imperialistic aims of
his/her terrorist organization, PKK/KADEK terrorist oranization; has
no right to say anything except to sit by his lawyer in the court of
law to hear his sentense announced for the crimes he/she committed.
organization, a full-time, professional and unconditional hater and
murderer of innocent citizens of the Democratic Republic of Turkey,
posts an anti-Turkish hate propaganda fabricated by mouth-pieces of
the same PKK/KADEK terrorist organization which, with the support of
the enemies of Turkey (Syria, Belgium, Sweden, Netherlands,
Switzerland, Denmark, France, Greece and others) and with the income
it obtained from major illegal drug trafficking to Europe, robberies,
extortions, etc. murdered nearly 40 thousands innocent human beings in
Turkey and ruined the health and property of many thousands of others
to destroy democratic goverment of the Republic of Turkey and
establish a marxist, lennist, communist PKK/KADEK dictatorship in
South East Turkey.This is against the laws of all countries in the
World including Turkey. Any country, as well as Turkey, will defend
itself against such terrorism as a most legitimate and legal right.
To hell with you all PKK/KADEK terrorists !!!!!
PKK/KADEK is not a democratically elected represantative of Kurdish
citizens of Turkey. Democratically elected represantatives of the
citizens of Turkey of Kurdish descend are in the goverment as MPs,
ministers, PMs, presidents, judges, etc., certainly not as terrorists
murdering innocent human beings. Plus, all citizens of Turkey of
Kurdish descend, like everybody else, are serving their country as
soldiers, officers and generals in the military, police officers,
lawyers and judges in the law enforcement organizations, pursuing
their lives as business man and woman, professional careers in the
private business and goverment institutions. And, none of them feel
they have to murder innocent human beings "to defend themselves". All
citizen of Turkey, regardless of race, language, religion, gender,
etc., have their undeniable right and freedom under the law to defend
their rights and freedoms, pursue solutions for the problems they
think they have by only legal, peacefull and democratic ways and
means, definitely not "whatever means is possible" and certainly not
by terrorism.
http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk3.htm
What is the PKK/KADEK ?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The PKK (Kurdish acronym for the "Kurdistan Workers' Party"), formed
in 1978 by Abdullah Öcalan, is the most notorious terror organization
in the world. It has been waging a vicious campaign of terror against
Turkey since 1984 with the external support of certain states and
circles whose aim is to destabilize Turkey.
The PKK was identified as one of the 30 main terrorist organizations
in the world by the US Secretary of State in October 1997, and it was
also described in the same way in US State Department "Patterns of
Global Terrorism" reports.
PKK's terrorist activities have resulted, to date, in the death of
thousands of people, including women, the elderly, children and in
many instances even infants. The PKK has also murdered over one
hundred school teachers, who became inevitable targets of the
terrorists since it was judged that PKK's subversive views could be
most easily imposed on the uneducated and the ignorant. Lists giving
the figures of ordinary individuals and public servants, ruthlessly
killed or maimed by the PKK terrorists, are in annex.
The PKK has employed murder, intimidation, kidnapping and destruction
to achieve its nefarious objectives. It targets ordinary people,
because it aims to subjugate the local population in southeastern
Turkey into supporting its evil deeds. The PKK has attacked the entire
inhabitants of villages in southeast Anatolia. These attacks are also
designed to make the region uninhabitable. The PKK destroys schools,
sets forests on fire, blows up railways and bridges, plants mines on
roads, burns down construction machinery, and demolishes health
centers. A list containing the figures of material damage caused by
PKK's terrorist attacks is also in annex.
In response, the authorities trained the villagers to defend
themselves and also moved some people to locations where they would be
safer. These two measures, intended to protect the local population
against terrorism, have been at the center of a misinformation
campaign by the PKK and its sympathizers.
The PKK indiscriminately murders the very people on whose behalf it
purports to act : Turkish citizens of Kurdish origin. Ironically, the
PKK regards Masud Barzani's Kurdish Democratic Party and Jalal
Talabani's Patriotic Union of Kurdistan, the two main Kurdish
groupings in northern Iraq, as its adversaries.
Due to its ability to strike Turkey from Syria and (after the 1991
Gulf War) northern Iraq, the PKK proved for some time a serious threat
to law and order and claimed many victims. Following its operations
against PKK facilities in northern Iraq Turkey restored law and order
throughout the southeastern provinces.
The PKK has been supported and sheltered by some of Turkey's
neighbors, as well as by some others outside the region. Syria and
Greece are the principal countries that have been supporting the PKK
for years. However, with the signing of Adana memorandum on October
20, 1998, the Syrian connection has been broken. Syrian authorities
have promised not to support terrorist activities against Turkey and
taken some steps in this direction. Turkey closely monitors Syrian
compliance with the Adana agreement. Yet, Greece, a NATO ally, backs
the PKK and its affiliates by every means at its disposal. Confessions
and testimonies of dozens of PKK militants arrested in Turkey reveal
that Greek support to PKK terrorism goes much beyond than what was
generally estimated. Most recently, revelations made by the PKK member
Fethi Demir and by ?emdin Sak?k, PKK's "second man" captured in
northern Iraq, have helped to confirm concretely the continuing Greek
support to the PKK. The statement made by Greek Premier Simitis on
November 26, 1998, leaves no room for doubt about the position of
Greece vis-a-vis the PKK : "the PKK is an organization fighting for
the rights of the Kurdish minority and using various means to reach
this end." Can there be a more explicit approval of PKK terrorism?
There is of course other evidence and documentation concerning Greek
support to PKK terrorism.
The PKK terrorist organization, among others, employs the following
a) Indiscriminate terror against the Turkish citizens of Kurdish
ethnic origin mainly in southeastern Turkey. Targets included
children, women, and the elderly. In some places PKK terrorists have
wiped out isolated, dispersed settlements and hamlets.
The aim is to force the local population into submission, to make them
provide sanctuary.
b) Indiscriminate terror against non-Kurdish population. The purpose
is to discredit the state institutions and to cause instability.
c) Terror against selected targets.
- Assassination of well known personalities, judicial, law enforcement
and security personnel.
- Assassination of state functionaries that provide services to the
local population in southeastern Turkey (civil servants, teachers,
health personnel, technical personnel, etc.).
- Assassination of village guardsmen and their families.
- Attacks on and occupation of official missions of Turkey abroad
(diplomatic, consular, commercial, tourism, etc.) as well as
headquarters or branch offices of semi-official institutions (Turkish
Airlines offices, banks, etc.).Attacks and acts of arson against the
houses, business facilities, associations and mosques of the Turkish
community living in western Europe, mainly in Germany. These acts of
terror are mostly carried out through proxies and front organizations
that are permitted by the authorities of the host countries to operate
in those states.
d) Terror within the ranks of the PKK, against informants and
repentant militants. Over the years, Öcalan has ordered the killing of
numerous PKK defectors and potential rivals. In the past decade, the
PKK has conducted assassinations, kidnappings and acts of arson in
Western Europe against former PKK members and defectors.
Assassinations of PKK defectors occurred in Sweden in 1984 and 1985;
in Denmark in 1985; in the Netherlands in 1987 and 1989; in Germany in
1986, 1987, and 1988.
e) Wider hit and run tactics against border posts and military
patrols.
f) Terrorist attacks against industrial infrastructure, oil
facilities, social facilities, and tourist sites with the aim of
weakening the Turkish economy and tarnishing its image. As part of
these terror acts, the PKK bombed passenger trains, ferryboats, and
buses. Several of these attacks resulted in civilian casualties. In
1993 and 1994 it also staged a series of kidnappings of foreigners in
southeastern Turkey to frighten away tourists and to embarrass the
Turkish government.
g) The head of the terrorist organization PKK has advocated and
ordered the use of suicide bombings against Turkish targets that
resulted in the deaths of security personnel and civilians, and
injuries to many more.
Obviously, such an enterprise of crime and violence like the PKK
requires colossal human and financial resources. As there are no
legitimate ways or means to obtain the required resources, PKK's only
option is to resort to illegal and illegitimate methods. Hence, the
PKK is heavily engaged in organized crime activities, including
extortion, drug trafficking, arms smuggling, human smuggling (illegal
immigration), and abduction of children. Such racketeering takes place
particularly in western Europe.
The PKK has been carrying out its activities abroad through its front
organization ERNK (Kurdish acronym for the "Kurdistan National
Liberation Front"), the so-called "Kurdistan Parliament in Exile", its
mouthpiece MED TV, and through other affiliated offices, centers and
associations.
Through these front establishments, the PKK organizes and carries out
its illegal activities. It also uses them to make its propaganda so as
to influence and mislead the public opinion in west European countries
for obtaining popular support to its subversive ends.
The abduction of children and youngsters in some European countries by
these front organizations deserves special mention. According to
police reports and press articles in several west European countries,
the PKK recently organized kidnappings of children, of 14-17 years of
age, in Varmland/Sweden through the ERNK, and in Celle/Germany through
"Kurdish Information Bureaus", or "Kurdish Culture Centers". The
statements of some of the abducted children, as well as press and
police reports reveal that the PKK kidnapped these youngsters, took
them to its camps, located in some other west European countries, and
forced them into training as terrorist militants.
The Turkish authorities spared no effort in drawing the attention of
the west European countries to such criminal and illegal activities of
the PKK, but unfortunately their calls to prevent these activities
usually fell on deaf ears. The complaints of the children's families,
however, attracted the attention of the public and thus created a
strong reaction towards what the PKK and its affiliates have in fact
been doing for years. The police in Sweden and Germany are now
investigating the matter.
Terrorism constitutes today one of the most serious violations of
human rights, in particular the fundamental right to life. By
murdering thousands of people, the PKK has violated the right to life.
Therefore, all the PKK terrorists, including their head Öcalan, must
answer in the court of law for their crimes.
All societies threatened by terrorism have the right to take
appropriate measures to protect themselves from violence and to
eradicate terrorism. Turkey's fight against the PKK terrorism is of
this nature and aims not only to maintain security and to protect its
citizens, but also to pave the way for economic and social development
in the regions where this is needed most. This fight against terrorism
observes democratic principles and the rule of law, with great care
being given to respect the rights of innocent civilians.
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Who is Abdullah Öcalan ?
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Abdullah Öcalan was born in the province of Sanliurfa in 1949. He
speaks Turkish and has only a poor grasp of some Kurdish dialects. He
had a conventional education and his original wish was to be an
officer in the Turkish Army. He failed the entrance examination for
the military academy. He did, however, gain admission in 1971 to the
Ankara University Political Sciences Faculty. There, he joined the
underground movements trying to overthrow Turkey's parliamentary
system. He was expelled from the university for non-attendance and his
illegal activities.
The cell of terrorists which he controlled soon broke links with other
groups. It was known for its use of extreme violence and the "Apocu's"
(Followers of Abdullah Öcalan), as the PKK was called in its early
days, had a special trademark: they hacked off the noses of their
opponents. In the late 1970's, Öcalan collaborated closely with the
Soviet Union and with Syria which were attempting to create political
turmoil in Turkey. In 1980, Öcalan fled to Syria. He began to use
Syrian facilities, including camps in the Bekaa Valley, Lebanese
territory under Syrian control, to train terrorist groups for
cross-border terrorist attacks against targets in Turkey. He started
to inject an ethnic dimension to his terrorist activities, though this
usually had to be imposed on local populations by violent means,
including the kidnapping young men at gun point and then forcing them
to undergo indoctrination and join his movement. In August 1984,
Öcalan's terrorist groups began attacking Turkish police stations and
similar targets in the southeastern provinces north of the border with
Syria and Iraq.
The PKK operates along the familiar lines of traditional communist
parties and carries out terrorist activities under the rigid direction
of its Central Committee. Both its "political" and "military" wings
are controlled directly by Öcalan. As its sole head, Öcalan, has
callously masterminded thousands of PKK's terrorist activities against
Turkey and its people. As such, he has been responsible for thousands
of deaths, kidnappings, mutilations and attacks on innocent people
during his long years as a professional terrorist and murderer.
In October 1998, Turkey warned Syria that it would take action unless
it ceased its support for Öcalan and PKK terrorism. It formally
requested the extradition of Öcalan to Turkey. As a result, Öcalan was
compelled to leave Syria where he had been given shelter for almost
two decades. Furthermore, by an agreement signed between the two
countries on October 20, 1998 in Adana/Turkey, the Syrian Government
for the first time designated the PKK as a terrorist organization, and
pledged not to allow the presence and the activities of the PKK on its
territory. Later, Öcalan was forced to leave Moscow, where he had
escaped from Syria, following political and diplomatic contacts
between Turkey and the Russian Federation.
Öcalan was apprehended in Rome while trying to illegally enter Italy
with a false passport on November 12, 1998. As the British Government
put it, Öcalan's arrest was "a significant advance in the
international community's fight against terrorism."
Öcalan is not only a terrorist but also a common criminal, being
sought by the Turkish courts under charges of homicide and incitement
to homicide. There is thus a red corner bulletin for him issued by the
Interpol. In accordance with a court decision given in 1990, Germany
also had an arrest warrant on Öcalan again for homicide and incitement
to homicide.
All democratic, law-abiding countries as well as international
institutions are obligated to take a consistent and firm stance in
combating terrorism and bringing terrorists to justice. Under
obligations and commitments within the framework of the United
Nations, the Council of Europe, the OSCE, the NATO, and the EU, no
country or government can provide terrorists with safe-haven or evade
its responsibilities in the efforts to eliminate terrorism. Therefore,
Öcalan should never be granted political asylum anywhere and he has to
be extradited to Turkey to face trial for his crimes against Turkish
citizens.
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PKK's Involvement in Organized Crimes
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The PKK engages in organized crimes such as drug trafficking and arms
smuggling, extortion, human smuggling, abduction of children and money
laundering in an attempt to recruit militants and to obtain financial
resources needed to carry out its terrorist activities.
The "Sputnik Operation" conducted in a coordinated fashion in some
European countries in September 1996 exposed PKK's links with
organized crime and money laundering activities.
On the other hand, it is known that the PKK, together with other
organized crime gangs, is also behind the recent wave of illegal
immigration to Italy. PKK's objective is to create international
pressure and antipathy against Turkey.
Moreover, the PKK plays an important role in drug trafficking which
constitutes one of the most evil crimes of our age. The British weekly
magazine "The Spectator" underlined this fact in its 28 November-5
December 1998 issue by saying that "?According to the British security
services sources the PKK is responsible for 40 percent of the heroin
sold in the European Union?" .
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Drug Trafficking and Terrorist Organizations
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
All terrorist organizations need to raise funds to sustain their
violent activities and resort to illegal means to finance their
crimes. Drug trafficking comes at the top of this list of illegal
money raising activities, followed by robbery, extortion, kidnapping,
blackmailing and arms smuggling.
In recent years, it has become increasingly evident that terrorism and
drug trafficking are intertwined. The terms "narco-terrorism" and
"narco-terrorists" have started to gain circulation in describing the
link between terrorist organizations and narcotics smugglers. This
fact is illustrated by certain international documents. The UN
Convention Against Illicit Traffic In Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic
Substances (1988) refers to the relationship between illicit drug
traffic and other organized criminal activities which undermine the
stability, security and legitimacy of sovereign states.
Paragraph 5 of the UN International Narcotics Control Board (INCB)'s
1992 report points out that "illicit cultivation of narcotic plants
and illicit trafficking in drugs continue to be a threat to the
political, economic and social stability of several countries. Links
appear to exist between illicit cultivation and drug trafficking and
the activities of subversive organizations in some countries."
The 1993 INCB report draws attention to the organic connections
between drug cartels and terrorist organizations, and also to the
globalization of drug smuggling. The successive INCB reports point out
that these drug cartels concentrate their activities in ethnically and
economically troubled regions of the world. It is no coincidence that
terrorist organizations thrive in the very same regions.
The Vienna Declaration and Program of Action adopted at the World
Conference on Human Rights (25 June 1993) stresses that "the acts,
methods and practices of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations
as well as linkage in some countries to drug trafficking are
activities aimed at the destruction of human rights, fundamental
freedoms and democracy, threatening territorial integrity, security of
states and destabilizing legitimately constituted governments, and the
international community should take the necessary steps to enhance
cooperation to prevent and combat terrorism."
The Final Communiqué of the Council of Europe Pompidou Group 2nd
Pan-European Ministerial Conference (Strasbourg, 4 February 1994)
underlines the fact that "considering the continuous increase in and
the spread of drug trafficking incidents, the involvement of violent
organizations in such activities constitute a serious threat to the
contemporary society" (Art.9), and thus, "it is vital for the security
forces to combat terrorism effectively" (Art.l5).
The UN Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism
adopted at the 49th session of the General Assembly, underlines the
concern by the international community at the growing and dangerous
links between terrorists groups, drug traffickers and their
paramilitary gangs which have resorted to all types of violence, thus
endangering the constitutional order of States and violating basic
human rights. This Declaration also emphasizes the desirability of
closer cooperation and coordination among States in combating crimes
closely connected with terrorism, including drug trafficking, unlawful
arms trade, money laundering and smuggling of nuclear and other
potentially deadly materials.
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Foreign Press Reports
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* In January 1992, the Bremen Police arrested a "Kurd" selling drugs.
The police found a bunch of keys in his pocket, which belonged to an
apartment where "Kurds" lived. Hanging on the walls of the said
apartment were posters of the PKK and its leader Abdullah Öcalan. The
police also found some clues suggesting that the PKK finances its
armed struggle by the heroin trade (SAT-1 TV, 24 Hours, 6 January
1992).
* In 1992, a total number of 2,069 drug addicts died in Germany. In
the same year, the German police apprehended some children aged 10-12,
coming from southeastern Turkey and selling drugs in Hamburg. A child
of 8 carrying a firearm was also arrested. All these children
confessed that the PKK was using them to sell drugs, since they did
not have penal responsibility. The police seized 30 kg. of heroin from
a "Kurd" who was said to have transferred DM 150,000 to his partners.
The estimated figure the PKK earns from the narcotics trade is more
than 56 million DM (VOX TV ; Germany, 12 February 1993).
* In 1993, more than 50 PKK members were arrested by the Essen Police
of Germany. The Federal Criminal Department in Wiesbaden found out
that the PKK was organizing drug trafficking in Germany and the
narcotics trade in Hamburg, Bremen, Frankfurt and Essen was under the
control of the PKK (German Daily "NRZ," 30 March 1993).
* The Hamburg Criminal Police arrested a band of Kurdish drug
smugglers on 15 September 1993. 11-year-old children, who were also
arrested with the other members of the band, later confessed to the
police that the PKK illegally brought them from Turkey to Germany in
order to make them sell drugs for the organization (Hamburg Local TV
Broadcast, 15 September 1993).
* Three years of intensive police investigation by the Slagelse Police
and the Narcotics Section of the National Police Force in Denmark
resulted in the solution of several armed robberies whose spoils were
used to finance narcotics purchases. The police captured a Danish
person, who had links with two Turkish narcotics kingpins living in
Denmark. During the trial the close relationship between these people
and the PKK was proven. The superintendent Niels Bech of the National
Police Force expressed that large parts of the profits from the
narcotics sales in Denmark have returned to Turkey. In one case DDK
140,000 were sent to Turkey and kilos of heroin was sent to Europe in
return (Danish Daily, "Berlingske Tidende," 31 October 1993).
* Two young PKK members (aged 14 and 16) were caught by the police
selling drugs at the Trabrennbahn Train Station near Wandsbeck on 26
September 1994 ("Bild-Hamburg" 28 September 1994).
* On 5-6 October 1994 the "Bild" reported that narcotics were being
distributed from Jork in Alten Land to Northern Germany and that the
Kurdish dealers transferred 15 million DM to their collaborators in
Turkey.
* On 24 October 1994 the German magazine "Focus" wrote that in the
last 9 years 315 PKK members were involved in drug trafficking around
Europe, 154 of whom were captured in Germany.
* Ralf Brottscheller, the Senator of Interior of Bremen, accused the
PKK of extortion and organized narcotics smuggling ("Focus," 18
September 1995).
* In France, the Aulnay Sous Bois Public Security Units and Paris
Bureau of Combating Narcotics Trafficking conducted an operation which
was completed after long and careful preparations of 18 months. 30
people involved in narcotics trafficking on behalf of the PKK and the
Mafia active in France and Belgium were taken into custody after the
operation (French Press, 4 November 1996).
* The Belgian Gendarmerie raided a camp in Zutendaal/Genk, in which
the PKK militants were being trained, and apprehended 35 people,
including children and some internationally wanted criminals
("Arnhemse Courant," 22 November 1996).
* The administrators of a facade company helping the PKK's activities
in France were taken into custody in Paris (French Press, 25 February
1997).
* The "Observatoire Geopolitique Des Drogues" noted in its monthly
report that the biggest heroin seizure in Hungary to date was made on
December 12, 1996, aboard a Turkish bus belonging to the Toros Line
company. The Turkish traffickers, caught with 42 kg. heroin turned out
to be "Kurds." The report mentions the case of a Romanian citizen who,
upon his arrest with 2 kg. heroin by the Turkish police in Edirne in
September 1995, admitted that he was running for the PKK drugs in one
direction and explosives in the other.
The report also notes that 65 percent of the drugs confiscated by the
Romanian customs officers are found on passenger vehicles and that
"every time Romanian police make a drug haul at a Turkish company,
Kurds are involved" ("The Geopolitical Drug Dispatch", No. 65, March
1997).
* A high level member of the PKK, known as the PKK chief in the
Hannover area, was arrested in Berlin. He had been wanted by the
German police on charges of arson attacks, and damage to private
property. The police found out evidence regarding the PKK's
involvement in illicit labor trafficking ("Berliner Zeitung" 4 April
1997).
* 20 refugees were arrested in a police raid on a refugee hostel which
was discovered to be a PKK base, in Grimma, Bahren. The operation was
conducted jointly by the German police and experts from the Federal
Criminal Department. The police confiscated various fire arms,
thousands of DM and receipts. These immigrants were actively involved
in the activities of the PKK and its facade branches (German Press, 4
April 1997).
* The Bavarian police conducted a series of operations against the PKK
militants in refugee camps, arrested 2, and took into custody 17 of
them (Statement by Straubing Police Directorate dated 17 June 1997).
* The PKK transfers people, weapons and drugs through the FRY (Former
Republic of Yugoslavia) and purchases weapons in return (Croatian
daily "Vjesnik" August 1997).
* The "Focus" magazine remarked on 23 March 1998 that members of the
PKK invested the money laundered from drug trafficking and extortion
in the real estate market in Celle, Germany.
* On August 1, 1998, the Croatian and Slovenian security forces
jointly confiscated 38 kg. of heroin in a vehicle bound for western
Europe. According to the Croatian reports, the shipment of the heroin
was realized by Turkish citizens "who are most probably members of the
PKK" This is consistent with the statements made by Slovenian security
forces who have pointed to a "reasonable suspicion" that a member of
the PKK is involved in the smuggling (Croatian and Slovenian press
reviews, 6 August 1998).
* Four "Kurdish" people were captured with 2.6 kg. heroin, the largest
amount of narcotics ever captured in west Norway. It is thought that
the four people caught were merely couriers and that the trafficking
was carried out by a "Turkish/Kurdish" network (Bergen, 7 August
1998).
* "?The PKK has financed its war against Turkey by extortion and the
sale of heroin, and according to British security service sources it
is responsible for 40 percent of the heroin sold in the European
Union?" (British weekly magazine "The Spectator", 28 November-5
December 1998 issue).
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Reports of Foreign Police and Foreign Officials
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* In January 1990, a PKK member was arrested in Switzerland for
selling drugs on behalf of the PKK. In the same month a 13-year-old
person, also linked to the PKK, was captured in the Netherlands and
was released as being too young to prosecute.
* A Turkish citizen of Kurdish origin, apprehended in France on 22
January 1991, confessed that he had been trading drugs in France on
behalf of the PKK and that the drugs were transported by trucks or
sometimes by tourist vehicles and then distributed to different cities
not only in France but in various other countries in Europe as well.
* After being arrested on 7 March 1991 in France, a "Kurdish" person
confessed that the drugs he was selling belonged to the PKK.
* Another Turkish citizen of "Kurdish" descent, captured with 48 kg.
of heroin in Arnheim in November 1991, was found out to be a PKK
member.
* The German Police reports underline the fact that l,103 kg. of
heroin was seized by the police in 1991 and 400 of 735 suspects
involved in the drug trading incidents were PKK members. This ratio
mounted to 450/735 in 1992 and 300/457 in 1993.
* The US Department of State Bureau of International Narcotics Matters
expressed in its International Narcotics Control Strategy Report
(1992) that the two-thirds of the people involved in drug trafficking
incidents in Europe are PKK-oriented.
* An active PKK member working as a truck driver, who was known to
have stood as a candidate in Bonn in the 1992 elections for the PKK's
so-called National Assembly, was seized in Troisdorf, Germany, while
transporting substantial amounts of drugs.
* In 1993, the police seized 200 kg. of heroin in London. Further
investigation revealed that the drug traders were working for the PKK.
* A police operation in Offenbach, Germany on 7 January 1993, led to
the seizure of 5 kilos of heroin. Among the seven people captured by
the police was a person known as the "PKK's accountant."
* As a consequence of the operations conducted by the German police in
Hamburg, Bremen and Bad Bramstad during May-October 1993, 15.7 kg. of
heroin was confiscated and 22 people were apprehended, including PKK
members and supporters. The criminals turned out to have requested
political asylum from the German authorities.
* 15 Turkish citizens with "Kurdish" descent were arrested in
connection with 1.6 kg. heroin seized by the German police in
Recklinghausen, Germany, on 27 October 1993. Among those were the
participants at pro-PKK demonstrations in Turkey.
* A message by the German Interpol dated October 26, 1993, pointed out
that six Turkish citizens with Kurdish origin were arrested on charges
of laundering the proceeds from drug trafficking in the Netherlands,
Spain, Italy and Germany. Large sums of cash, thought to be laundered
money, were captured by the German police.
* Another Turkish citizen of "Kurdish" origin, captured in Caracas,
Venezuela on 10 November 1993, while carrying 3.5 kg. of cocaine,
confessed that she was a PKK courier. This incident is said to prove
the links of the PKK with the drug cartels even in Latin America.
* The NCIS estimated that the 44 percent of 1993 budget of the PKK as
430 million French Francs, came from illicit drug trafficking.
* During a six-week campaign initiated by the Stuttgart city police in
January 1994, 76 people were apprehended, including some who had been
formerly prosecuted in Turkey because of their links with the
terrorist organization.
* On 17 August 1994 the German Criminal Authority informed the Turkish
Security Authorities that a political refugee, resident in Kiel, was
engaged in drug trade and money transfer to the PKK.
* The US Deputy Secretary of State in charge of narcotics, Ambassador
Robert Felbard, answering a question at a press briefing in February
1994 regarding the PKK supervision of drug trafficking in Europe and
the United States, stated that the US had quite a bit of information
about the PKK's involvement in the trafficking of heroin into Europe.
* The Amsterdam police, during an anti-drug operation on 11 December
1994, seized numerous firearms, machine guns, bombs and PKK documents
and arrested several PKK militants.
* The Bavarian Minister of Interior, Günter Beckstein, referring to
the 30 PKK militants captured in Europe during the last two years,
stated that the PKK has taken control of the European narcotics market
(Turkish daily, "Cumhuriyet," 31 July 1995).
* The Director of German Terrorism Research Forum, Rolp Tophoven, has
stated that a large majority of the people arrested on charges of
narcotics smuggling are of "Kurdish" descent, many of whom confess
committing the crime on behalf of the terrorist PKK (Turkish daily,
"Yeni Yüzy?l," 12 November 1995).
* Olivier Foll, another expert on international terrorism, noted that
the PKK members, when apprehended for illegal possession of narcotics,
confess to smuggling drugs for the PKK and exploit the "political"
dimension of the issue as an excuse for their crimes. Mr. Foll
criticized the "Kurdish" policies of some European statesmen who grant
concessions to the PKK (Turkish daily "Yeni Yüzy?l," 12 November
1995).
* During the Sputnik operation of September 18, 1996, the Belgian
police seized 350 million Belgian Francs that were thought to have
been the proceeds from narcotics trafficking. Seven people having ties
with the PKK were apprehended in connection with the crime. The
Sputnik operation also revealed that the MED-TV, the mouthpiece of the
PKK, is involved in PKK's money laundering activities. The MED-TV
representative in Germany was taken into custody as he was unable to
explain the source of the 500 million BF, used in financing the
station. It was later found that he was using revenues from drug
trafficking for financing not only the MED-TV but also the so-called
"Kurdistan Parliament in Exile" (KPE). The Belgian police seized many
firearms in the KPE building they searched.
* In August 1997, the German police conducted a comprehensive
operation against the PKK members in Cologne in which six members of
the PKK were arrested. After the operation, Cologne police officers
issued a statement emphsizing the fact that the PKK is involved in
organized crime including extortion in Germany to finance its acts of
terrorism.
* The Göttingen police of Germany, after a 14-month investigation,
managed to penetrate the drug smuggling network with two "Kurdish"
informers in May 1998 and found out that the revenues from 40 kg. of
heroin marketed were channeled to the PKK.
* The KDP (The Kurdistan Democratic Party of Masud Barzani) forces
discovered extensive narcotics farms in the Gali Pes Agha region of
northern Iraq, captured from the PKK in May 1997.
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Turkish Police Reports
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* A PKK member, captured by the police with 14.5 kg. of heroin on 1
September 1993, confessed that he was acting on behalf of the PKK
abroad, and that he was a drug-smuggler, transferring 30 percent of
the proceeds to the terrorist organization.
* Following the confiscation of 20.3 kg. of heroin in Duisburg,
Germany, two PKK supporters were arrested by the German police. This
triggered a police investigation in Turkey, which led to the seizure
of firearms and munitions in a vehicle owned by the same family in the
city of Mersin on 12 May 1993.
* A PKK militant of Iranian origin confessed that the terrorist
organization has drug production facilities in Iran and that Osman
Öcalan (the brother of Abdullah Öcalan and a leading figure of the
terrorist organization PKK) is in charge of the production of
narcotics which are later marketed mainly in Europe to raise money for
the organization.
* Two PKK militants, arrested with 30 kg. of heroin, expressed that
they were aiming to sell the drugs to provide financial contributions
to the PKK.
* The Turkish Security Forces seized 120 kg. of heroin and 40 kg. of
hemp seeds (cannabis) in a PKK shelter in southeastern Turkey.
* One PKK member, who was put in jail on 3 July 1993 for getting
involved in the terrorist acts of the PKK in Hakkari and released on
20 October 1993, was captured with 36 kg. of heroine, 140 kg. of
precursors and some other drug-producing material.
* Another member of the PKK, sentenced to 6 years of imprisonment,
confessed that he was in charge of establishing the links between the
drug smugglers and the terrorist organization.
* During the operations conducted by the Turkish security forces, two
people, captured with 48 kg. of hashish, were arrested as they were
found out to be involved in narco-trade so as to provide financial
support to the PKK.
* Another Turkish citizen said to be of "Kurdish-origin", caught by
the police in possession of 117 kilos of hashish in Istanbul, was
later found to have participated in the PKK-led attack on the Turkish
Consulate General in Frankfurt on March 1l, 1992.
* One Turkish citizen of "Kurdish-origin" apprehended in July 1994
confessed that he was involved in drug trafficking to raise money for
the PKK. The police, making use of the information he disclosed, were
able to arrest some other members of the terrorist organization.
* On 1 August 1994 a PKK member, apprehended in Diyarbak?r with 2 kg.
of heroin, acknowledged that he was selling drugs for the PKK. He also
informed the police that some PKK members were cultivating drugs and
gave the names of the places where hemp seeds (cannabis) were grown.
In further investigation the police captured 120,000 roots of hemp
seeds in a village named Dibek.
* On 21 August 1994 the Turkish security forces apprehended two people
with 150 kg. of hashish and considerable amounts of hemp seeds and
hashish growing material. The security forces also captured PKK
documents and propaganda material and two machine guns.
* Diyarbak?r Police, conducting an operation against the PKK on 17
July 1994, apprehended three people with 80 kg. of hashish, PKK
documents, a gun and three ERNK seals. These people confessed that the
PKK ordered them to sell the drugs and purchase firearms and food
supplies for the organization. The said people turned out to have
participated in various terror acts such as the rocket attack to and
storming of a police residence in Lice on 29 June, the bomb attack on
the residence of a judge in Diyarbak?r on 16 January 1994, and a bomb
attack on a police patrol car.
* Seven people captured in the city of Cizre on 23 March 1994 with
398.5 kilos of heroin confessed to smuggling narcotics on behalf of
the PKK.
* The security forces have had strong evidence suggesting that a
network composed of PKK militants is involved in drug trading in Zaho,
northern Iraq. The network is known to hand the drugs over to clients
either in Zaho or in Turkey. Therefore, it was not very surprising
that during the operation by the Turkish Armed Forces in northern Iraq
against the PKK, the Turkish army discovered a large farm where the
terrorists cultivated hemp (cannabis). The farm was located near the
PKK's Pirvela Camp in the Bahara valley. The Turkish military officers
announced that the amount of drugs captured during the operation in
northern Iraq reached 4.5 tons.
* In a raid on 7 March 1995 on the residence of a person, suspected by
the police of having contact with the PKK militants, the Turkish
police seized large amounts of drugs, drug precursor chemicals,
firearms and ammunitions.
* Three of the seven people caught with 21.5 kilos of heroin in
Hamburg, Germany, have been found out to have been formerly arrested
in Turkey on charges of PKK membership.
* The two people caught by the police with 20.6 kilos of narcotics in
?zmir on August 5, 1996, have been found out to be running an
association linked to the PKK in the Netherlands.
* Another PKK sympathizer, who was captured with acetic anhydride, a
heroin precursor chemical, by the Turkish security forces in the city
of Van on March 24, 1998, was found to have been previously arrested
for providing logistic support to the PKK.
* The Turkish security forces have strong evidence that the PKK
militants, settled in the Iranian part of our common border, receive
commissions from the narcotics smugglers called "taxes or donations."
***
The role of the PKK in incidents given above is undeniable, both
because of the documents seized by the security forces and the
backgrounds of the arrested people. Still, in certain Western
countries, the activities of this terrorist organization, are
regrettably being tolerated.
After the prohibition of PKK in France and Germany towards the end of
1993, a wave of optimism emerged in Turkish public opinion that the
rest of the European countries would follow suit by adopting similar
measures. This, however, has not happened to date. Yet, it is clear
that the prohibition of the PKK and its front organizations in
European countries would also be in the interest of these countries.
The PKK is responsible for narcotics trafficking, extortion, robbery,
and illicit arms and human smuggling activities, and thus circumvent
the rule of law and compromises the security and stability of the
countries in which it operates. It is no coincidence that drug
trafficking cases predominantly occur in those countries where the
organization of the PKK is extensive and tolerated.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk11.htm
Is There A "Kurdish Question" in Turkey?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
As the first melting pot and encounter point of many different
civilizations and cultures, present-day Turkey contains a multitude of
ethnic, religious and cultural elements. Turkey is proud of its great
heritage. This centuries-long shared way of life is perfectly
second-nature for the people of Turkey.
Yet, different ethnic identities, including the Kurdish, are
acknowledged and accepted in Turkey. The state does not categorize its
citizens along ethnic lines nor does it impose an ethnic identity on
them. Population censuses in Turkey never count people on the basis of
their ethnic origins. But, this does not prevent an individual citizen
to identify himself or herself in terms of a specific ethnic category.
That is a private affair and ultimately a matter of personal
preference. Public expressions and manifestations of ethnic identity
are prohibited neither by law nor by social custom. Folklore is rich
and colorful and local variations, customs and traditions are
protected and supported.
Turkey is a constitutional state governed by the rule of law.
Democracy rests on a parliamentary system of government, respect for
human rights and on the supremacy of law. Multi-party politics, free
elections, a growing tradition of local government mark the democratic
way of life in Turkey.
Constitutional citizenship is one of the principles upon which the
Turkish state was founded. The Turkish Constitution stipulates that
the State and the Nation are indivisible, and that all citizens
irrespective of their ethnic, racial or religious origin, are equal
before the law.
For historical and cultural reasons, and under stipulations of binding
international treaties, the concept of "minority" applies specifically
to certain groups of non-Moslem citizens. In fact, the social fabric
of Turkey is a unique real life case of the OSCE principle that "not
all ethnic, cultural, linguistic or religious differences necessarily
lead to the creation of national minorities". Our citizens of Kurdish
ethnic origin are not discriminated against and they feel themselves
to be equal members of the society. Many have risen to the highest
positions in the Republic. They share the same opportunities and the
same destiny as the rest of the population.
Ethnicity is not a factor in the political geography of Turkey. That
is, the predominant majority of the Turkish citizens of Kurdish
descent live in western Turkey, with the greatest concentration being
in Istanbul. Even in eastern and southeastern Turkey, the Turkish
citizens of Kurdish ethnic origin do not constitute a majority. The
unitary structure of the State reflects the equality and togetherness
of different geographic regions of Turkey.
Therefore, it is simply neither understandable nor acceptable for
Turkey to discuss "the respect for social, economic and legitimate
political aspirations of Kurds" as if the Turkish citizens of Kurdish
ethnic descent constitute a different and separate community. They are
citizens of a nation that has been sharing for centuries the same
values with respect to language, religion, culture and patriotic
identity, common history and the will for a mutual future.
It is of cardinal importance to differentiate between a militant
organization, which resorts systematically to terrorism as well as all
kinds of organized crime, and the phenomenon of Kurdish ethnicity. It
is evident that our citizens of Kurdish ethnic origin are law-abiding
people. Most of them live in western Turkey, drawn by economic
attraction. They are of their own choice integrated into the society
and its economic, social and cultural aspects. In Turkey, citizens of
all ethnic origins can rise to the highest political positions and
ranks such as cabinet ministers and members of parliament. Throughout
the centuries, much mixing has taken place through intermarriages.
Progress in industrial, cultural and social fields, as well as
urbanization, has also contributed to the voluntary and natural
process of integration.
The population in southeast Anatolia, like our citizens in other
regions of the country, participate fully in the political life of
Turkey; they freely make their voices heard in local administrations,
in the municipalities, the Parliament, and the central government
through elected representatives. It is nothing out of the ordinary for
the individuals of different ethnic origins to participate in the
political life of the country. Even the most militant circles concede
the fact that there are no obstacles to social mobility of individuals
from different ethnic origins to any profession or career, whether
public or private.
The fundamental rights and freedoms of all Turkish citizens are
secured by the relevant provisions of the Constitution. However, those
rights have been threatened by the PKK, creating terror among the
populace.
None of our citizens of Kurdish ethnic origin, notwithstanding
allegations to the contrary, who publicly or politically asserts
his/her Kurdish ethnic identity risks harassment or persecution.
However, acts or statements made against the "territorial integrity"
of Turkey are subject to legal prosecution under the law. If these
allegations were true, none of the publications in Kurdish whose
contents are full of assertions of Kurdish ethnic identity would have
been tolerated by the authorities.
In the same vein, Turkey is often accused of refusing to negotiate
with the terrorist organization PKK. These accusations contradict the
fundamental rules of international law. Negotiating with a terrorist
organization, responsible for thousands of murders, would be
tantamount to justifying and encouraging terrorism.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk12.htm
Is the Use of Kurdish Banned in Turkey ?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Contrary to the allegations of some biased quarters, there is no
restriction on the use of languages in Turkey. Presently, there are
many private radio-TV stations broadcasting and numerous books and
journals published both in Turkish and in various dialects of
"Kurdish" throughout the country. It should be mentioned here that
"Kurdish" can be hardly depicted as "a single language" linguistically
or socially. Many scholars point out the fact that there are many
different local languages and dialects used in southeastern Turkey
such as Zaza and Kirmanchi which are only as close to each other as
French and English. These local languages and dialects are so
dissimilar that people living in one village cannot even communicate
with others from a neighboring village. As a result, Turkish has
become the sole medium of communication in the region. It is ironic
that Turkish is also used in PKK's militant training camps and in the
communication between its headquarters and terrorists as their common
language.
The official language of the Republic of Turkey is Turkish, but
Armenian, Ladino, Greek, the different dialects of "Kurdish", etc. are
spoken freely in daily life. There is only one official language in
the country. However, in this respect Turkey does not constitute a
unique and exceptional case either in Europe or among other democratic
countries.
It should also be underlined that expressions of ethnic identity such
as the use of local languages are viewed as private domain matters.
Thus, they are not the subject of law and are therefore not regulated
by the state. The Turkish language is the language of the Republic of
Turkey and is consequently the only formal language of education and
instruction. The same is true in most democracies. Though it is
possible to help promote them, it is neither realistic nor feasible to
make local tongues official languages of the State.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk13.htm
Socio-Economic Development of Southeastern Turkey and the
Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The Atatürk Dam is the largest component of the Southeastern Anatolia
Project (GAP).
The Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP), consisting of a complex
system of dams, waterworks, irrigation and hydraulic energy network is
a colossal investment of Turkey, the biggest regional initiative ever
attempted in Turkey. It aims at changing the whole complexion of the
arid geography and consequently, the social and economic backwardness
of southeastern Anatolia. The Turkish Government has always believed
that one of the best tools in the struggle against terrorism is
economic development. It is no accident that the region in which the
PKK operates is also the least economically developed part of Turkey.
The Turkish Government is determined to rectify that.
It is a fact that there are socio-economic regional imbalances in
Turkey as in every developing, even some developed countries. Rough
geographic and climatic conditions of southeastern Turkey are the main
factors in this imbalance. Terrorism and economic backwardness of the
region affect all our citizens indiscriminately. Despite many
governmental incentives and low taxation policies, the private sector
had in the past been reluctant to invest in the region, mainly due to
security concerns. Public sector has taken the place of the private
sector and many investments have already been realized by the State.
"GAP" is the best example of that. Government investment in this
region is much higher than the amount of taxes collected there. "GAP"
is a gigantic economic step forward which will change the destiny of
the region. Agricultural production of Turkey will rise by several
folds when this project, which is both energy and irrigation oriented,
is completed. Yet, its important impact is not expected only on
agricultural production, but also on industry, construction, services,
as well as on the Gross Regional Product and employment. When the
project is completed, per capita income will increase three times, and
3.3 million jobs will be created.
The Southeastern Anatolia Project constitutes an integrated project
which contributes significantly to the realization of national targets
for the utilization of development potentials, self-induced economic
growth, social stability and enhancement of export possibilities, and
at the same time aims at the promotion of the principle of sustainable
human development; thus, human development is the core of sustainable
development in the "GAP" region. In this context, the "GAP Social
Action Plan" consists of the basic policies, targets, strategies and
implementation measures for ensuring the social development of the
region through a human-centered approach emphasizing sustainability of
the development. This people-centered development aims to remove the
gap between the project area and the more developed regions in Turkey
and to promote equitable development.
This ambitious socio-economic development drive also explains why the
PKK has been targeting civilians as well as economic and social
projects. PKK's aim is both to terrorize the local population and to
keep the region economically and socially backward so as to recruit
more militants into its own ranks. However, this is being reversed as
the GAP began to bear its fruits. For example, although the so-called
head of the PKK is from ?anl?urfa, there has never been a terrorist
act there, because it is an economically powerful settlement. The
state of emergency still has to continue in some of the provinces of
southeastern Turkey. It is the direct consequence and explicit proof
of the PKK terrorism in the region. It is of utmost importance for
Turkey to augment the allocation of human and financial resources for
the socio-economic development of this region. The precondition to
achieve this task is the eradication of the PKK terrorist
organization.
Eradication of terrorism will not only put an end to the deliberate
devastation by terrorists of the underdeveloped regions of Turkey, but
also release important resources for developmental activity in those
very regions. While terrorism might be viewed as a consequence of
certain underlying causes, it is also incontestably true that
terrorism is itself the main reason of poverty and underdevelopment of
those areas where it is perpetrated.
In sum, our citizens of all ethnic origins -Turkish, Kurdish and
others- living together for more than ten centuries in Turkey have
created a society of patriotic citizens sharing common values. They
established their own nation-state, the Turkish Republic, following
the War of Independence. Ethnic descent is not considered a cause of
discrimination or privilege just as in all modern nation States on the
globe.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
mark rivers
2004-10-04 20:01:45 UTC
Permalink
***@lycos.com (Ali Asker) wrote in message news:<***@posting.google.com>...




+++++++++++++++++


From: Ali Asker (***@lycos.com)
Subject: Re: Kuwerdish contribution to Oscar 2005
This is the only article in this thread
View: Original Format
Newsgroups: soc.culture.iranian, soc.culture.kurdish,
soc.culture.turkish, soc.culture.iraq
Date: 2004-10-02 04:55:12 PST


We are the TERRORISTS...

We will divide Iran, Turkey, Syria and Iraq in to the pieces until
ever single individual is free from thought control, torture and
brain-washing! Every nation should have their own land where they can
practice their own culture. Iran has consist of about 20 some
different nations and we will tore them in to 20 different countries
and give mollahs a small land where they can practice their barbaric
religion to themselves and only harm temselves.

WE WILL BREAK IRAN IN TO THE PIECES!!!


+++++++++++++=


This son-of-a-bitch is a terrorist, a raper, torturer and killer of
innocent and defeseless people to advance the imperialistic aims of
his/her terrorist organization, PKK/KADEK terrorist oranization; has
no right to say anything except to sit by his lawyer in the court of
law to hear his sentense announced for the crimes he/she committed.

***@hotmail.com (Ali Asker), a thug of PKK/KADEK terrorist
organization, a full-time, professional and unconditional hater and
murderer of innocent citizens of the Democratic Republic of Turkey,
posts an anti-Turkish hate propaganda fabricated by mouth-pieces of
the same PKK/KADEK terrorist organization which, with the support of
the enemies of Turkey (Syria, Belgium, Sweden, Netherlands,
Switzerland, Denmark, France, Greece and others) and with the income
it obtained from major illegal drug trafficking to Europe, robberies,
extortions, etc. murdered nearly 40 thousands innocent human beings in
Turkey and ruined the health and property of many thousands of others
to destroy democratic goverment of the Republic of Turkey and
establish a marxist, lennist, communist PKK/KADEK dictatorship in
South East Turkey.This is against the laws of all countries in the
World including Turkey. Any country, as well as Turkey, will defend
itself against such terrorism as a most legitimate and legal right.


To hell with you all PKK/KADEK terrorists !!!!!

PKK/KADEK is not a democratically elected represantative of Kurdish
citizens of Turkey. Democratically elected represantatives of the
citizens of Turkey of Kurdish descend are in the goverment as MPs,
ministers, PMs, presidents, judges, etc., certainly not as terrorists
murdering innocent human beings. Plus, all citizens of Turkey of
Kurdish descend, like everybody else, are serving their country as
soldiers, officers and generals in the military, police officers,
lawyers and judges in the law enforcement organizations, pursuing
their lives as business man and woman, professional careers in the
private business and goverment institutions. And, none of them feel
they have to murder innocent human beings "to defend themselves". All
citizen of Turkey, regardless of race, language, religion, gender,
etc., have their undeniable right and freedom under the law to defend
their rights and freedoms, pursue solutions for the problems they
think they have by only legal, peacefull and democratic ways and
means, definitely not "whatever means is possible" and certainly not
by terrorism.





http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk3.htm



What is the PKK/KADEK ?

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The PKK (Kurdish acronym for the "Kurdistan Workers' Party"), formed
in 1978 by Abdullah Öcalan, is the most notorious terror organization
in the world. It has been waging a vicious campaign of terror against
Turkey since 1984 with the external support of certain states and
circles whose aim is to destabilize Turkey.

The PKK was identified as one of the 30 main terrorist organizations
in the world by the US Secretary of State in October 1997, and it was
also described in the same way in US State Department "Patterns of
Global Terrorism" reports.

PKK's terrorist activities have resulted, to date, in the death of
thousands of people, including women, the elderly, children and in
many instances even infants. The PKK has also murdered over one
hundred school teachers, who became inevitable targets of the
terrorists since it was judged that PKK's subversive views could be
most easily imposed on the uneducated and the ignorant. Lists giving
the figures of ordinary individuals and public servants, ruthlessly
killed or maimed by the PKK terrorists, are in annex.

The PKK has employed murder, intimidation, kidnapping and destruction
to achieve its nefarious objectives. It targets ordinary people,
because it aims to subjugate the local population in southeastern
Turkey into supporting its evil deeds. The PKK has attacked the entire
inhabitants of villages in southeast Anatolia. These attacks are also
designed to make the region uninhabitable. The PKK destroys schools,
sets forests on fire, blows up railways and bridges, plants mines on
roads, burns down construction machinery, and demolishes health
centers. A list containing the figures of material damage caused by
PKK's terrorist attacks is also in annex.

In response, the authorities trained the villagers to defend
themselves and also moved some people to locations where they would be
safer. These two measures, intended to protect the local population
against terrorism, have been at the center of a misinformation
campaign by the PKK and its sympathizers.

The PKK indiscriminately murders the very people on whose behalf it
purports to act : Turkish citizens of Kurdish origin. Ironically, the
PKK regards Masud Barzani's Kurdish Democratic Party and Jalal
Talabani's Patriotic Union of Kurdistan, the two main Kurdish
groupings in northern Iraq, as its adversaries.

Due to its ability to strike Turkey from Syria and (after the 1991
Gulf War) northern Iraq, the PKK proved for some time a serious threat
to law and order and claimed many victims. Following its operations
against PKK facilities in northern Iraq Turkey restored law and order
throughout the southeastern provinces.

The PKK has been supported and sheltered by some of Turkey's
neighbors, as well as by some others outside the region. Syria and
Greece are the principal countries that have been supporting the PKK
for years. However, with the signing of Adana memorandum on October
20, 1998, the Syrian connection has been broken. Syrian authorities
have promised not to support terrorist activities against Turkey and
taken some steps in this direction. Turkey closely monitors Syrian
compliance with the Adana agreement. Yet, Greece, a NATO ally, backs
the PKK and its affiliates by every means at its disposal. Confessions
and testimonies of dozens of PKK militants arrested in Turkey reveal
that Greek support to PKK terrorism goes much beyond than what was
generally estimated. Most recently, revelations made by the PKK member
Fethi Demir and by ?emdin Sak›k, PKK's "second man" captured in
northern Iraq, have helped to confirm concretely the continuing Greek
support to the PKK. The statement made by Greek Premier Simitis on
November 26, 1998, leaves no room for doubt about the position of
Greece vis-a-vis the PKK : "the PKK is an organization fighting for
the rights of the Kurdish minority and using various means to reach
this end." Can there be a more explicit approval of PKK terrorism?
There is of course other evidence and documentation concerning Greek
support to PKK terrorism.

The PKK terrorist organization, among others, employs the following
methods in the perpetration of its crimes:

a) Indiscriminate terror against the Turkish citizens of Kurdish
ethnic origin mainly in southeastern Turkey. Targets included
children, women, and the elderly. In some places PKK terrorists have
wiped out isolated, dispersed settlements and hamlets.

The aim is to force the local population into submission, to make them
provide sanctuary.

b) Indiscriminate terror against non-Kurdish population. The purpose
is to discredit the state institutions and to cause instability.

c) Terror against selected targets.

- Assassination of well known personalities, judicial, law enforcement
and security personnel.

- Assassination of state functionaries that provide services to the
local population in southeastern Turkey (civil servants, teachers,
health personnel, technical personnel, etc.).

- Assassination of village guardsmen and their families.

- Attacks on and occupation of official missions of Turkey abroad
(diplomatic, consular, commercial, tourism, etc.) as well as
headquarters or branch offices of semi-official institutions (Turkish
Airlines offices, banks, etc.).Attacks and acts of arson against the
houses, business facilities, associations and mosques of the Turkish
community living in western Europe, mainly in Germany. These acts of
terror are mostly carried out through proxies and front organizations
that are permitted by the authorities of the host countries to operate
in those states.

d) Terror within the ranks of the PKK, against informants and
repentant militants. Over the years, Öcalan has ordered the killing of
numerous PKK defectors and potential rivals. In the past decade, the
PKK has conducted assassinations, kidnappings and acts of arson in
Western Europe against former PKK members and defectors.
Assassinations of PKK defectors occurred in Sweden in 1984 and 1985;
in Denmark in 1985; in the Netherlands in 1987 and 1989; in Germany in
1986, 1987, and 1988.

e) Wider hit and run tactics against border posts and military
patrols.

f) Terrorist attacks against industrial infrastructure, oil
facilities, social facilities, and tourist sites with the aim of
weakening the Turkish economy and tarnishing its image. As part of
these terror acts, the PKK bombed passenger trains, ferryboats, and
buses. Several of these attacks resulted in civilian casualties. In
1993 and 1994 it also staged a series of kidnappings of foreigners in
southeastern Turkey to frighten away tourists and to embarrass the
Turkish government.

g) The head of the terrorist organization PKK has advocated and
ordered the use of suicide bombings against Turkish targets that
resulted in the deaths of security personnel and civilians, and
injuries to many more.

Obviously, such an enterprise of crime and violence like the PKK
requires colossal human and financial resources. As there are no
legitimate ways or means to obtain the required resources, PKK's only
option is to resort to illegal and illegitimate methods. Hence, the
PKK is heavily engaged in organized crime activities, including
extortion, drug trafficking, arms smuggling, human smuggling (illegal
immigration), and abduction of children. Such racketeering takes place
particularly in western Europe.

The PKK has been carrying out its activities abroad through its front
organization ERNK (Kurdish acronym for the "Kurdistan National
Liberation Front"), the so-called "Kurdistan Parliament in Exile", its
mouthpiece MED TV, and through other affiliated offices, centers and
associations.

Through these front establishments, the PKK organizes and carries out
its illegal activities. It also uses them to make its propaganda so as
to influence and mislead the public opinion in west European countries
for obtaining popular support to its subversive ends.

The abduction of children and youngsters in some European countries by
these front organizations deserves special mention. According to
police reports and press articles in several west European countries,
the PKK recently organized kidnappings of children, of 14-17 years of
age, in Varmland/Sweden through the ERNK, and in Celle/Germany through
"Kurdish Information Bureaus", or "Kurdish Culture Centers". The
statements of some of the abducted children, as well as press and
police reports reveal that the PKK kidnapped these youngsters, took
them to its camps, located in some other west European countries, and
forced them into training as terrorist militants.

The Turkish authorities spared no effort in drawing the attention of
the west European countries to such criminal and illegal activities of
the PKK, but unfortunately their calls to prevent these activities
usually fell on deaf ears. The complaints of the children's families,
however, attracted the attention of the public and thus created a
strong reaction towards what the PKK and its affiliates have in fact
been doing for years. The police in Sweden and Germany are now
investigating the matter.

Terrorism constitutes today one of the most serious violations of
human rights, in particular the fundamental right to life. By
murdering thousands of people, the PKK has violated the right to life.
Therefore, all the PKK terrorists, including their head Öcalan, must
answer in the court of law for their crimes.

All societies threatened by terrorism have the right to take
appropriate measures to protect themselves from violence and to
eradicate terrorism. Turkey's fight against the PKK terrorism is of
this nature and aims not only to maintain security and to protect its
citizens, but also to pave the way for economic and social development
in the regions where this is needed most. This fight against terrorism
observes democratic principles and the rule of law, with great care
being given to respect the rights of innocent civilians.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------




http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk4.htm


Who is Abdullah Öcalan ?

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Abdullah Öcalan was born in the province of Sanliurfa in 1949. He
speaks Turkish and has only a poor grasp of some Kurdish dialects. He
had a conventional education and his original wish was to be an
officer in the Turkish Army. He failed the entrance examination for
the military academy. He did, however, gain admission in 1971 to the
Ankara University Political Sciences Faculty. There, he joined the
underground movements trying to overthrow Turkey's parliamentary
system. He was expelled from the university for non-attendance and his
illegal activities.

The cell of terrorists which he controlled soon broke links with other
groups. It was known for its use of extreme violence and the "Apocu's"
(Followers of Abdullah Öcalan), as the PKK was called in its early
days, had a special trademark: they hacked off the noses of their
opponents. In the late 1970's, Öcalan collaborated closely with the
Soviet Union and with Syria which were attempting to create political
turmoil in Turkey. In 1980, Öcalan fled to Syria. He began to use
Syrian facilities, including camps in the Bekaa Valley, Lebanese
territory under Syrian control, to train terrorist groups for
cross-border terrorist attacks against targets in Turkey. He started
to inject an ethnic dimension to his terrorist activities, though this
usually had to be imposed on local populations by violent means,
including the kidnapping young men at gun point and then forcing them
to undergo indoctrination and join his movement. In August 1984,
Öcalan's terrorist groups began attacking Turkish police stations and
similar targets in the southeastern provinces north of the border with
Syria and Iraq.

The PKK operates along the familiar lines of traditional communist
parties and carries out terrorist activities under the rigid direction
of its Central Committee. Both its "political" and "military" wings
are controlled directly by Öcalan. As its sole head, Öcalan, has
callously masterminded thousands of PKK's terrorist activities against
Turkey and its people. As such, he has been responsible for thousands
of deaths, kidnappings, mutilations and attacks on innocent people
during his long years as a professional terrorist and murderer.

In October 1998, Turkey warned Syria that it would take action unless
it ceased its support for Öcalan and PKK terrorism. It formally
requested the extradition of Öcalan to Turkey. As a result, Öcalan was
compelled to leave Syria where he had been given shelter for almost
two decades. Furthermore, by an agreement signed between the two
countries on October 20, 1998 in Adana/Turkey, the Syrian Government
for the first time designated the PKK as a terrorist organization, and
pledged not to allow the presence and the activities of the PKK on its
territory. Later, Öcalan was forced to leave Moscow, where he had
escaped from Syria, following political and diplomatic contacts
between Turkey and the Russian Federation.

Öcalan was apprehended in Rome while trying to illegally enter Italy
with a false passport on November 12, 1998. As the British Government
put it, Öcalan's arrest was "a significant advance in the
international community's fight against terrorism."

Öcalan is not only a terrorist but also a common criminal, being
sought by the Turkish courts under charges of homicide and incitement
to homicide. There is thus a red corner bulletin for him issued by the
Interpol. In accordance with a court decision given in 1990, Germany
also had an arrest warrant on Öcalan again for homicide and incitement
to homicide.

All democratic, law-abiding countries as well as international
institutions are obligated to take a consistent and firm stance in
combating terrorism and bringing terrorists to justice. Under
obligations and commitments within the framework of the United
Nations, the Council of Europe, the OSCE, the NATO, and the EU, no
country or government can provide terrorists with safe-haven or evade
its responsibilities in the efforts to eliminate terrorism. Therefore,
Öcalan should never be granted political asylum anywhere and he has to
be extradited to Turkey to face trial for his crimes against Turkish
citizens.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------






http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk5.htm



PKK's Involvement in Organized Crimes

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The PKK engages in organized crimes such as drug trafficking and arms
smuggling, extortion, human smuggling, abduction of children and money
laundering in an attempt to recruit militants and to obtain financial
resources needed to carry out its terrorist activities.

The "Sputnik Operation" conducted in a coordinated fashion in some
European countries in September 1996 exposed PKK's links with
organized crime and money laundering activities.

On the other hand, it is known that the PKK, together with other
organized crime gangs, is also behind the recent wave of illegal
immigration to Italy. PKK's objective is to create international
pressure and antipathy against Turkey.

Moreover, the PKK plays an important role in drug trafficking which
constitutes one of the most evil crimes of our age. The British weekly
magazine "The Spectator" underlined this fact in its 28 November-5
December 1998 issue by saying that "…According to the British security
services sources the PKK is responsible for 40 percent of the heroin
sold in the European Union…" .

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------





http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk6.htm




Drug Trafficking and Terrorist Organizations

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

All terrorist organizations need to raise funds to sustain their
violent activities and resort to illegal means to finance their
crimes. Drug trafficking comes at the top of this list of illegal
money raising activities, followed by robbery, extortion, kidnapping,
blackmailing and arms smuggling.

In recent years, it has become increasingly evident that terrorism and
drug trafficking are intertwined. The terms "narco-terrorism" and
"narco-terrorists" have started to gain circulation in describing the
link between terrorist organizations and narcotics smugglers. This
fact is illustrated by certain international documents. The UN
Convention Against Illicit Traffic In Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic
Substances (1988) refers to the relationship between illicit drug
traffic and other organized criminal activities which undermine the
stability, security and legitimacy of sovereign states.

Paragraph 5 of the UN International Narcotics Control Board (INCB)'s
1992 report points out that "illicit cultivation of narcotic plants
and illicit trafficking in drugs continue to be a threat to the
political, economic and social stability of several countries. Links
appear to exist between illicit cultivation and drug trafficking and
the activities of subversive organizations in some countries."

The 1993 INCB report draws attention to the organic connections
between drug cartels and terrorist organizations, and also to the
globalization of drug smuggling. The successive INCB reports point out
that these drug cartels concentrate their activities in ethnically and
economically troubled regions of the world. It is no coincidence that
terrorist organizations thrive in the very same regions.

The Vienna Declaration and Program of Action adopted at the World
Conference on Human Rights (25 June 1993) stresses that "the acts,
methods and practices of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations
as well as linkage in some countries to drug trafficking are
activities aimed at the destruction of human rights, fundamental
freedoms and democracy, threatening territorial integrity, security of
states and destabilizing legitimately constituted governments, and the
international community should take the necessary steps to enhance
cooperation to prevent and combat terrorism."

The Final Communiqué of the Council of Europe Pompidou Group 2nd
Pan-European Ministerial Conference (Strasbourg, 4 February 1994)
underlines the fact that "considering the continuous increase in and
the spread of drug trafficking incidents, the involvement of violent
organizations in such activities constitute a serious threat to the
contemporary society" (Art.9), and thus, "it is vital for the security
forces to combat terrorism effectively" (Art.l5).

The UN Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism
adopted at the 49th session of the General Assembly, underlines the
concern by the international community at the growing and dangerous
links between terrorists groups, drug traffickers and their
paramilitary gangs which have resorted to all types of violence, thus
endangering the constitutional order of States and violating basic
human rights. This Declaration also emphasizes the desirability of
closer cooperation and coordination among States in combating crimes
closely connected with terrorism, including drug trafficking, unlawful
arms trade, money laundering and smuggling of nuclear and other
potentially deadly materials.

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Foreign Press Reports

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* In January 1992, the Bremen Police arrested a "Kurd" selling drugs.
The police found a bunch of keys in his pocket, which belonged to an
apartment where "Kurds" lived. Hanging on the walls of the said
apartment were posters of the PKK and its leader Abdullah Öcalan. The
police also found some clues suggesting that the PKK finances its
armed struggle by the heroin trade (SAT-1 TV, 24 Hours, 6 January
1992).

* In 1992, a total number of 2,069 drug addicts died in Germany. In
the same year, the German police apprehended some children aged 10-12,
coming from southeastern Turkey and selling drugs in Hamburg. A child
of 8 carrying a firearm was also arrested. All these children
confessed that the PKK was using them to sell drugs, since they did
not have penal responsibility. The police seized 30 kg. of heroin from
a "Kurd" who was said to have transferred DM 150,000 to his partners.
The estimated figure the PKK earns from the narcotics trade is more
than 56 million DM (VOX TV ; Germany, 12 February 1993).

* In 1993, more than 50 PKK members were arrested by the Essen Police
of Germany. The Federal Criminal Department in Wiesbaden found out
that the PKK was organizing drug trafficking in Germany and the
narcotics trade in Hamburg, Bremen, Frankfurt and Essen was under the
control of the PKK (German Daily "NRZ," 30 March 1993).

* The Hamburg Criminal Police arrested a band of Kurdish drug
smugglers on 15 September 1993. 11-year-old children, who were also
arrested with the other members of the band, later confessed to the
police that the PKK illegally brought them from Turkey to Germany in
order to make them sell drugs for the organization (Hamburg Local TV
Broadcast, 15 September 1993).

* Three years of intensive police investigation by the Slagelse Police
and the Narcotics Section of the National Police Force in Denmark
resulted in the solution of several armed robberies whose spoils were
used to finance narcotics purchases. The police captured a Danish
person, who had links with two Turkish narcotics kingpins living in
Denmark. During the trial the close relationship between these people
and the PKK was proven. The superintendent Niels Bech of the National
Police Force expressed that large parts of the profits from the
narcotics sales in Denmark have returned to Turkey. In one case DDK
140,000 were sent to Turkey and kilos of heroin was sent to Europe in
return (Danish Daily, "Berlingske Tidende," 31 October 1993).

* Two young PKK members (aged 14 and 16) were caught by the police
selling drugs at the Trabrennbahn Train Station near Wandsbeck on 26
September 1994 ("Bild-Hamburg" 28 September 1994).

* On 5-6 October 1994 the "Bild" reported that narcotics were being
distributed from Jork in Alten Land to Northern Germany and that the
Kurdish dealers transferred 15 million DM to their collaborators in
Turkey.

* On 24 October 1994 the German magazine "Focus" wrote that in the
last 9 years 315 PKK members were involved in drug trafficking around
Europe, 154 of whom were captured in Germany.

* Ralf Brottscheller, the Senator of Interior of Bremen, accused the
PKK of extortion and organized narcotics smuggling ("Focus," 18
September 1995).

* In France, the Aulnay Sous Bois Public Security Units and Paris
Bureau of Combating Narcotics Trafficking conducted an operation which
was completed after long and careful preparations of 18 months. 30
people involved in narcotics trafficking on behalf of the PKK and the
Mafia active in France and Belgium were taken into custody after the
operation (French Press, 4 November 1996).

* The Belgian Gendarmerie raided a camp in Zutendaal/Genk, in which
the PKK militants were being trained, and apprehended 35 people,
including children and some internationally wanted criminals
("Arnhemse Courant," 22 November 1996).

* The administrators of a facade company helping the PKK's activities
in France were taken into custody in Paris (French Press, 25 February
1997).

* The "Observatoire Geopolitique Des Drogues" noted in its monthly
report that the biggest heroin seizure in Hungary to date was made on
December 12, 1996, aboard a Turkish bus belonging to the Toros Line
company. The Turkish traffickers, caught with 42 kg. heroin turned out
to be "Kurds." The report mentions the case of a Romanian citizen who,
upon his arrest with 2 kg. heroin by the Turkish police in Edirne in
September 1995, admitted that he was running for the PKK drugs in one
direction and explosives in the other.

The report also notes that 65 percent of the drugs confiscated by the
Romanian customs officers are found on passenger vehicles and that
"every time Romanian police make a drug haul at a Turkish company,
Kurds are involved" ("The Geopolitical Drug Dispatch", No. 65, March
1997).

* A high level member of the PKK, known as the PKK chief in the
Hannover area, was arrested in Berlin. He had been wanted by the
German police on charges of arson attacks, and damage to private
property. The police found out evidence regarding the PKK's
involvement in illicit labor trafficking ("Berliner Zeitung" 4 April
1997).

* 20 refugees were arrested in a police raid on a refugee hostel which
was discovered to be a PKK base, in Grimma, Bahren. The operation was
conducted jointly by the German police and experts from the Federal
Criminal Department. The police confiscated various fire arms,
thousands of DM and receipts. These immigrants were actively involved
in the activities of the PKK and its facade branches (German Press, 4
April 1997).

* The Bavarian police conducted a series of operations against the PKK
militants in refugee camps, arrested 2, and took into custody 17 of
them (Statement by Straubing Police Directorate dated 17 June 1997).

* The PKK transfers people, weapons and drugs through the FRY (Former
Republic of Yugoslavia) and purchases weapons in return (Croatian
daily "Vjesnik" August 1997).

* The "Focus" magazine remarked on 23 March 1998 that members of the
PKK invested the money laundered from drug trafficking and extortion
in the real estate market in Celle, Germany.

* On August 1, 1998, the Croatian and Slovenian security forces
jointly confiscated 38 kg. of heroin in a vehicle bound for western
Europe. According to the Croatian reports, the shipment of the heroin
was realized by Turkish citizens "who are most probably members of the
PKK" This is consistent with the statements made by Slovenian security
forces who have pointed to a "reasonable suspicion" that a member of
the PKK is involved in the smuggling (Croatian and Slovenian press
reviews, 6 August 1998).

* Four "Kurdish" people were captured with 2.6 kg. heroin, the largest
amount of narcotics ever captured in west Norway. It is thought that
the four people caught were merely couriers and that the trafficking
was carried out by a "Turkish/Kurdish" network (Bergen, 7 August
1998).

* "…The PKK has financed its war against Turkey by extortion and the
sale of heroin, and according to British security service sources it
is responsible for 40 percent of the heroin sold in the European
Union…" (British weekly magazine "The Spectator", 28 November-5
December 1998 issue).


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Reports of Foreign Police and Foreign Officials

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* In January 1990, a PKK member was arrested in Switzerland for
selling drugs on behalf of the PKK. In the same month a 13-year-old
person, also linked to the PKK, was captured in the Netherlands and
was released as being too young to prosecute.

* A Turkish citizen of Kurdish origin, apprehended in France on 22
January 1991, confessed that he had been trading drugs in France on
behalf of the PKK and that the drugs were transported by trucks or
sometimes by tourist vehicles and then distributed to different cities
not only in France but in various other countries in Europe as well.

* After being arrested on 7 March 1991 in France, a "Kurdish" person
confessed that the drugs he was selling belonged to the PKK.

* Another Turkish citizen of "Kurdish" descent, captured with 48 kg.
of heroin in Arnheim in November 1991, was found out to be a PKK
member.

* The German Police reports underline the fact that l,103 kg. of
heroin was seized by the police in 1991 and 400 of 735 suspects
involved in the drug trading incidents were PKK members. This ratio
mounted to 450/735 in 1992 and 300/457 in 1993.

* The US Department of State Bureau of International Narcotics Matters
expressed in its International Narcotics Control Strategy Report
(1992) that the two-thirds of the people involved in drug trafficking
incidents in Europe are PKK-oriented.

* An active PKK member working as a truck driver, who was known to
have stood as a candidate in Bonn in the 1992 elections for the PKK's
so-called National Assembly, was seized in Troisdorf, Germany, while
transporting substantial amounts of drugs.

* In 1993, the police seized 200 kg. of heroin in London. Further
investigation revealed that the drug traders were working for the PKK.

* A police operation in Offenbach, Germany on 7 January 1993, led to
the seizure of 5 kilos of heroin. Among the seven people captured by
the police was a person known as the "PKK's accountant."

* As a consequence of the operations conducted by the German police in
Hamburg, Bremen and Bad Bramstad during May-October 1993, 15.7 kg. of
heroin was confiscated and 22 people were apprehended, including PKK
members and supporters. The criminals turned out to have requested
political asylum from the German authorities.

* 15 Turkish citizens with "Kurdish" descent were arrested in
connection with 1.6 kg. heroin seized by the German police in
Recklinghausen, Germany, on 27 October 1993. Among those were the
participants at pro-PKK demonstrations in Turkey.

* A message by the German Interpol dated October 26, 1993, pointed out
that six Turkish citizens with Kurdish origin were arrested on charges
of laundering the proceeds from drug trafficking in the Netherlands,
Spain, Italy and Germany. Large sums of cash, thought to be laundered
money, were captured by the German police.

* Another Turkish citizen of "Kurdish" origin, captured in Caracas,
Venezuela on 10 November 1993, while carrying 3.5 kg. of cocaine,
confessed that she was a PKK courier. This incident is said to prove
the links of the PKK with the drug cartels even in Latin America.

* The NCIS estimated that the 44 percent of 1993 budget of the PKK as
430 million French Francs, came from illicit drug trafficking.

* During a six-week campaign initiated by the Stuttgart city police in
January 1994, 76 people were apprehended, including some who had been
formerly prosecuted in Turkey because of their links with the
terrorist organization.

* On 17 August 1994 the German Criminal Authority informed the Turkish
Security Authorities that a political refugee, resident in Kiel, was
engaged in drug trade and money transfer to the PKK.

* The US Deputy Secretary of State in charge of narcotics, Ambassador
Robert Felbard, answering a question at a press briefing in February
1994 regarding the PKK supervision of drug trafficking in Europe and
the United States, stated that the US had quite a bit of information
about the PKK's involvement in the trafficking of heroin into Europe.

* The Amsterdam police, during an anti-drug operation on 11 December
1994, seized numerous firearms, machine guns, bombs and PKK documents
and arrested several PKK militants.

* The Bavarian Minister of Interior, Günter Beckstein, referring to
the 30 PKK militants captured in Europe during the last two years,
stated that the PKK has taken control of the European narcotics market
(Turkish daily, "Cumhuriyet," 31 July 1995).

* The Director of German Terrorism Research Forum, Rolp Tophoven, has
stated that a large majority of the people arrested on charges of
narcotics smuggling are of "Kurdish" descent, many of whom confess
committing the crime on behalf of the terrorist PKK (Turkish daily,
"Yeni Yüzy›l," 12 November 1995).

* Olivier Foll, another expert on international terrorism, noted that
the PKK members, when apprehended for illegal possession of narcotics,
confess to smuggling drugs for the PKK and exploit the "political"
dimension of the issue as an excuse for their crimes. Mr. Foll
criticized the "Kurdish" policies of some European statesmen who grant
concessions to the PKK (Turkish daily "Yeni Yüzy›l," 12 November
1995).

* During the Sputnik operation of September 18, 1996, the Belgian
police seized 350 million Belgian Francs that were thought to have
been the proceeds from narcotics trafficking. Seven people having ties
with the PKK were apprehended in connection with the crime. The
Sputnik operation also revealed that the MED-TV, the mouthpiece of the
PKK, is involved in PKK's money laundering activities. The MED-TV
representative in Germany was taken into custody as he was unable to
explain the source of the 500 million BF, used in financing the
station. It was later found that he was using revenues from drug
trafficking for financing not only the MED-TV but also the so-called
"Kurdistan Parliament in Exile" (KPE). The Belgian police seized many
firearms in the KPE building they searched.

* In August 1997, the German police conducted a comprehensive
operation against the PKK members in Cologne in which six members of
the PKK were arrested. After the operation, Cologne police officers
issued a statement emphsizing the fact that the PKK is involved in
organized crime including extortion in Germany to finance its acts of
terrorism.

* The Göttingen police of Germany, after a 14-month investigation,
managed to penetrate the drug smuggling network with two "Kurdish"
informers in May 1998 and found out that the revenues from 40 kg. of
heroin marketed were channeled to the PKK.

* The KDP (The Kurdistan Democratic Party of Masud Barzani) forces
discovered extensive narcotics farms in the Gali Pes Agha region of
northern Iraq, captured from the PKK in May 1997.

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Turkish Police Reports

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* A PKK member, captured by the police with 14.5 kg. of heroin on 1
September 1993, confessed that he was acting on behalf of the PKK
abroad, and that he was a drug-smuggler, transferring 30 percent of
the proceeds to the terrorist organization.

* Following the confiscation of 20.3 kg. of heroin in Duisburg,
Germany, two PKK supporters were arrested by the German police. This
triggered a police investigation in Turkey, which led to the seizure
of firearms and munitions in a vehicle owned by the same family in the
city of Mersin on 12 May 1993.

* A PKK militant of Iranian origin confessed that the terrorist
organization has drug production facilities in Iran and that Osman
Öcalan (the brother of Abdullah Öcalan and a leading figure of the
terrorist organization PKK) is in charge of the production of
narcotics which are later marketed mainly in Europe to raise money for
the organization.

* Two PKK militants, arrested with 30 kg. of heroin, expressed that
they were aiming to sell the drugs to provide financial contributions
to the PKK.

* The Turkish Security Forces seized 120 kg. of heroin and 40 kg. of
hemp seeds (cannabis) in a PKK shelter in southeastern Turkey.

* One PKK member, who was put in jail on 3 July 1993 for getting
involved in the terrorist acts of the PKK in Hakkari and released on
20 October 1993, was captured with 36 kg. of heroine, 140 kg. of
precursors and some other drug-producing material.

* Another member of the PKK, sentenced to 6 years of imprisonment,
confessed that he was in charge of establishing the links between the
drug smugglers and the terrorist organization.

* During the operations conducted by the Turkish security forces, two
people, captured with 48 kg. of hashish, were arrested as they were
found out to be involved in narco-trade so as to provide financial
support to the PKK.

* Another Turkish citizen said to be of "Kurdish-origin", caught by
the police in possession of 117 kilos of hashish in Istanbul, was
later found to have participated in the PKK-led attack on the Turkish
Consulate General in Frankfurt on March 1l, 1992.

* One Turkish citizen of "Kurdish-origin" apprehended in July 1994
confessed that he was involved in drug trafficking to raise money for
the PKK. The police, making use of the information he disclosed, were
able to arrest some other members of the terrorist organization.

* On 1 August 1994 a PKK member, apprehended in Diyarbak›r with 2 kg.
of heroin, acknowledged that he was selling drugs for the PKK. He also
informed the police that some PKK members were cultivating drugs and
gave the names of the places where hemp seeds (cannabis) were grown.
In further investigation the police captured 120,000 roots of hemp
seeds in a village named Dibek.

* On 21 August 1994 the Turkish security forces apprehended two people
with 150 kg. of hashish and considerable amounts of hemp seeds and
hashish growing material. The security forces also captured PKK
documents and propaganda material and two machine guns.

* Diyarbak›r Police, conducting an operation against the PKK on 17
July 1994, apprehended three people with 80 kg. of hashish, PKK
documents, a gun and three ERNK seals. These people confessed that the
PKK ordered them to sell the drugs and purchase firearms and food
supplies for the organization. The said people turned out to have
participated in various terror acts such as the rocket attack to and
storming of a police residence in Lice on 29 June, the bomb attack on
the residence of a judge in Diyarbak›r on 16 January 1994, and a bomb
attack on a police patrol car.

* Seven people captured in the city of Cizre on 23 March 1994 with
398.5 kilos of heroin confessed to smuggling narcotics on behalf of
the PKK.

* The security forces have had strong evidence suggesting that a
network composed of PKK militants is involved in drug trading in Zaho,
northern Iraq. The network is known to hand the drugs over to clients
either in Zaho or in Turkey. Therefore, it was not very surprising
that during the operation by the Turkish Armed Forces in northern Iraq
against the PKK, the Turkish army discovered a large farm where the
terrorists cultivated hemp (cannabis). The farm was located near the
PKK's Pirvela Camp in the Bahara valley. The Turkish military officers
announced that the amount of drugs captured during the operation in
northern Iraq reached 4.5 tons.

* In a raid on 7 March 1995 on the residence of a person, suspected by
the police of having contact with the PKK militants, the Turkish
police seized large amounts of drugs, drug precursor chemicals,
firearms and ammunitions.

* Three of the seven people caught with 21.5 kilos of heroin in
Hamburg, Germany, have been found out to have been formerly arrested
in Turkey on charges of PKK membership.

* The two people caught by the police with 20.6 kilos of narcotics in
‹zmir on August 5, 1996, have been found out to be running an
association linked to the PKK in the Netherlands.

* Another PKK sympathizer, who was captured with acetic anhydride, a
heroin precursor chemical, by the Turkish security forces in the city
of Van on March 24, 1998, was found to have been previously arrested
for providing logistic support to the PKK.

* The Turkish security forces have strong evidence that the PKK
militants, settled in the Iranian part of our common border, receive
commissions from the narcotics smugglers called "taxes or donations."


***


The role of the PKK in incidents given above is undeniable, both
because of the documents seized by the security forces and the
backgrounds of the arrested people. Still, in certain Western
countries, the activities of this terrorist organization, are
regrettably being tolerated.

After the prohibition of PKK in France and Germany towards the end of
1993, a wave of optimism emerged in Turkish public opinion that the
rest of the European countries would follow suit by adopting similar
measures. This, however, has not happened to date. Yet, it is clear
that the prohibition of the PKK and its front organizations in
European countries would also be in the interest of these countries.
The PKK is responsible for narcotics trafficking, extortion, robbery,
and illicit arms and human smuggling activities, and thus circumvent
the rule of law and compromises the security and stability of the
countries in which it operates. It is no coincidence that drug
trafficking cases predominantly occur in those countries where the
organization of the PKK is extensive and tolerated.


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Is There A "Kurdish Question" in Turkey?

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

As the first melting pot and encounter point of many different
civilizations and cultures, present-day Turkey contains a multitude of
ethnic, religious and cultural elements. Turkey is proud of its great
heritage. This centuries-long shared way of life is perfectly
second-nature for the people of Turkey.

Yet, different ethnic identities, including the Kurdish, are
acknowledged and accepted in Turkey. The state does not categorize its
citizens along ethnic lines nor does it impose an ethnic identity on
them. Population censuses in Turkey never count people on the basis of
their ethnic origins. But, this does not prevent an individual citizen
to identify himself or herself in terms of a specific ethnic category.
That is a private affair and ultimately a matter of personal
preference. Public expressions and manifestations of ethnic identity
are prohibited neither by law nor by social custom. Folklore is rich
and colorful and local variations, customs and traditions are
protected and supported.

Turkey is a constitutional state governed by the rule of law.
Democracy rests on a parliamentary system of government, respect for
human rights and on the supremacy of law. Multi-party politics, free
elections, a growing tradition of local government mark the democratic
way of life in Turkey.

Constitutional citizenship is one of the principles upon which the
Turkish state was founded. The Turkish Constitution stipulates that
the State and the Nation are indivisible, and that all citizens
irrespective of their ethnic, racial or religious origin, are equal
before the law.

For historical and cultural reasons, and under stipulations of binding
international treaties, the concept of "minority" applies specifically
to certain groups of non-Moslem citizens. In fact, the social fabric
of Turkey is a unique real life case of the OSCE principle that "not
all ethnic, cultural, linguistic or religious differences necessarily
lead to the creation of national minorities". Our citizens of Kurdish
ethnic origin are not discriminated against and they feel themselves
to be equal members of the society. Many have risen to the highest
positions in the Republic. They share the same opportunities and the
same destiny as the rest of the population.

Ethnicity is not a factor in the political geography of Turkey. That
is, the predominant majority of the Turkish citizens of Kurdish
descent live in western Turkey, with the greatest concentration being
in Istanbul. Even in eastern and southeastern Turkey, the Turkish
citizens of Kurdish ethnic origin do not constitute a majority. The
unitary structure of the State reflects the equality and togetherness
of different geographic regions of Turkey.

Therefore, it is simply neither understandable nor acceptable for
Turkey to discuss "the respect for social, economic and legitimate
political aspirations of Kurds" as if the Turkish citizens of Kurdish
ethnic descent constitute a different and separate community. They are
citizens of a nation that has been sharing for centuries the same
values with respect to language, religion, culture and patriotic
identity, common history and the will for a mutual future.

It is of cardinal importance to differentiate between a militant
organization, which resorts systematically to terrorism as well as all
kinds of organized crime, and the phenomenon of Kurdish ethnicity. It
is evident that our citizens of Kurdish ethnic origin are law-abiding
people. Most of them live in western Turkey, drawn by economic
attraction. They are of their own choice integrated into the society
and its economic, social and cultural aspects. In Turkey, citizens of
all ethnic origins can rise to the highest political positions and
ranks such as cabinet ministers and members of parliament. Throughout
the centuries, much mixing has taken place through intermarriages.
Progress in industrial, cultural and social fields, as well as
urbanization, has also contributed to the voluntary and natural
process of integration.

The population in southeast Anatolia, like our citizens in other
regions of the country, participate fully in the political life of
Turkey; they freely make their voices heard in local administrations,
in the municipalities, the Parliament, and the central government
through elected representatives. It is nothing out of the ordinary for
the individuals of different ethnic origins to participate in the
political life of the country. Even the most militant circles concede
the fact that there are no obstacles to social mobility of individuals
from different ethnic origins to any profession or career, whether
public or private.

The fundamental rights and freedoms of all Turkish citizens are
secured by the relevant provisions of the Constitution. However, those
rights have been threatened by the PKK, creating terror among the
populace.

None of our citizens of Kurdish ethnic origin, notwithstanding
allegations to the contrary, who publicly or politically asserts
his/her Kurdish ethnic identity risks harassment or persecution.
However, acts or statements made against the "territorial integrity"
of Turkey are subject to legal prosecution under the law. If these
allegations were true, none of the publications in Kurdish whose
contents are full of assertions of Kurdish ethnic identity would have
been tolerated by the authorities.

In the same vein, Turkey is often accused of refusing to negotiate
with the terrorist organization PKK. These accusations contradict the
fundamental rules of international law. Negotiating with a terrorist
organization, responsible for thousands of murders, would be
tantamount to justifying and encouraging terrorism.


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Is the Use of Kurdish Banned in Turkey ?

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Contrary to the allegations of some biased quarters, there is no
restriction on the use of languages in Turkey. Presently, there are
many private radio-TV stations broadcasting and numerous books and
journals published both in Turkish and in various dialects of
"Kurdish" throughout the country. It should be mentioned here that
"Kurdish" can be hardly depicted as "a single language" linguistically
or socially. Many scholars point out the fact that there are many
different local languages and dialects used in southeastern Turkey
such as Zaza and Kirmanchi which are only as close to each other as
French and English. These local languages and dialects are so
dissimilar that people living in one village cannot even communicate
with others from a neighboring village. As a result, Turkish has
become the sole medium of communication in the region. It is ironic
that Turkish is also used in PKK's militant training camps and in the
communication between its headquarters and terrorists as their common
language.

The official language of the Republic of Turkey is Turkish, but
Armenian, Ladino, Greek, the different dialects of "Kurdish", etc. are
spoken freely in daily life. There is only one official language in
the country. However, in this respect Turkey does not constitute a
unique and exceptional case either in Europe or among other democratic
countries.

It should also be underlined that expressions of ethnic identity such
as the use of local languages are viewed as private domain matters.
Thus, they are not the subject of law and are therefore not regulated
by the state. The Turkish language is the language of the Republic of
Turkey and is consequently the only formal language of education and
instruction. The same is true in most democracies. Though it is
possible to help promote them, it is neither realistic nor feasible to
make local tongues official languages of the State.

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Socio-Economic Development of Southeastern Turkey and the
Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Atatürk Dam is the largest component of the Southeastern Anatolia
Project (GAP).

The Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP), consisting of a complex
system of dams, waterworks, irrigation and hydraulic energy network is
a colossal investment of Turkey, the biggest regional initiative ever
attempted in Turkey. It aims at changing the whole complexion of the
arid geography and consequently, the social and economic backwardness
of southeastern Anatolia. The Turkish Government has always believed
that one of the best tools in the struggle against terrorism is
economic development. It is no accident that the region in which the
PKK operates is also the least economically developed part of Turkey.
The Turkish Government is determined to rectify that.

It is a fact that there are socio-economic regional imbalances in
Turkey as in every developing, even some developed countries. Rough
geographic and climatic conditions of southeastern Turkey are the main
factors in this imbalance. Terrorism and economic backwardness of the
region affect all our citizens indiscriminately. Despite many
governmental incentives and low taxation policies, the private sector
had in the past been reluctant to invest in the region, mainly due to
security concerns. Public sector has taken the place of the private
sector and many investments have already been realized by the State.
"GAP" is the best example of that. Government investment in this
region is much higher than the amount of taxes collected there. "GAP"
is a gigantic economic step forward which will change the destiny of
the region. Agricultural production of Turkey will rise by several
folds when this project, which is both energy and irrigation oriented,
is completed. Yet, its important impact is not expected only on
agricultural production, but also on industry, construction, services,
as well as on the Gross Regional Product and employment. When the
project is completed, per capita income will increase three times, and
3.3 million jobs will be created.

The Southeastern Anatolia Project constitutes an integrated project
which contributes significantly to the realization of national targets
for the utilization of development potentials, self-induced economic
growth, social stability and enhancement of export possibilities, and
at the same time aims at the promotion of the principle of sustainable
human development; thus, human development is the core of sustainable
development in the "GAP" region. In this context, the "GAP Social
Action Plan" consists of the basic policies, targets, strategies and
implementation measures for ensuring the social development of the
region through a human-centered approach emphasizing sustainability of
the development. This people-centered development aims to remove the
gap between the project area and the more developed regions in Turkey
and to promote equitable development.

This ambitious socio-economic development drive also explains why the
PKK has been targeting civilians as well as economic and social
projects. PKK's aim is both to terrorize the local population and to
keep the region economically and socially backward so as to recruit
more militants into its own ranks. However, this is being reversed as
the GAP began to bear its fruits. For example, although the so-called
head of the PKK is from ?anl›urfa, there has never been a terrorist
act there, because it is an economically powerful settlement. The
state of emergency still has to continue in some of the provinces of
southeastern Turkey. It is the direct consequence and explicit proof
of the PKK terrorism in the region. It is of utmost importance for
Turkey to augment the allocation of human and financial resources for
the socio-economic development of this region. The precondition to
achieve this task is the eradication of the PKK terrorist
organization.

Eradication of terrorism will not only put an end to the deliberate
devastation by terrorists of the underdeveloped regions of Turkey, but
also release important resources for developmental activity in those
very regions. While terrorism might be viewed as a consequence of
certain underlying causes, it is also incontestably true that
terrorism is itself the main reason of poverty and underdevelopment of
those areas where it is perpetrated.

In sum, our citizens of all ethnic origins -Turkish, Kurdish and
others- living together for more than ten centuries in Turkey have
created a society of patriotic citizens sharing common values. They
established their own nation-state, the Turkish Republic, following
the War of Independence. Ethnic descent is not considered a cause of
discrimination or privilege just as in all modern nation States on the
globe.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ali Asker
2004-10-05 12:17:08 UTC
Permalink
You are still making the same mistake in one line you wrote;
and in the next line you wrote;
Please make your mind up and check my e-mail address!
Post by mark rivers
+++++++++++++++++
Subject: Re: Kuwerdish contribution to Oscar 2005
This is the only article in this thread
View: Original Format
Newsgroups: soc.culture.iranian, soc.culture.kurdish,
soc.culture.turkish, soc.culture.iraq
Date: 2004-10-02 04:55:12 PST
We are the TERRORISTS...
We will divide Iran, Turkey, Syria and Iraq in to the pieces until
ever single individual is free from thought control, torture and
brain-washing! Every nation should have their own land where they can
practice their own culture. Iran has consist of about 20 some
different nations and we will tore them in to 20 different countries
and give mollahs a small land where they can practice their barbaric
religion to themselves and only harm temselves.
WE WILL BREAK IRAN IN TO THE PIECES!!!
+++++++++++++=
This son-of-a-bitch is a terrorist, a raper, torturer and killer of
innocent and defeseless people to advance the imperialistic aims of
his/her terrorist organization, PKK/KADEK terrorist oranization; has
no right to say anything except to sit by his lawyer in the court of
law to hear his sentense announced for the crimes he/she committed.
organization, a full-time, professional and unconditional hater and
murderer of innocent citizens of the Democratic Republic of Turkey,
posts an anti-Turkish hate propaganda fabricated by mouth-pieces of
the same PKK/KADEK terrorist organization which, with the support of
the enemies of Turkey (Syria, Belgium, Sweden, Netherlands,
Switzerland, Denmark, France, Greece and others) and with the income
it obtained from major illegal drug trafficking to Europe, robberies,
extortions, etc. murdered nearly 40 thousands innocent human beings in
Turkey and ruined the health and property of many thousands of others
to destroy democratic goverment of the Republic of Turkey and
establish a marxist, lennist, communist PKK/KADEK dictatorship in
South East Turkey.This is against the laws of all countries in the
World including Turkey. Any country, as well as Turkey, will defend
itself against such terrorism as a most legitimate and legal right.
To hell with you all PKK/KADEK terrorists !!!!!
PKK/KADEK is not a democratically elected represantative of Kurdish
citizens of Turkey. Democratically elected represantatives of the
citizens of Turkey of Kurdish descend are in the goverment as MPs,
ministers, PMs, presidents, judges, etc., certainly not as terrorists
murdering innocent human beings. Plus, all citizens of Turkey of
Kurdish descend, like everybody else, are serving their country as
soldiers, officers and generals in the military, police officers,
lawyers and judges in the law enforcement organizations, pursuing
their lives as business man and woman, professional careers in the
private business and goverment institutions. And, none of them feel
they have to murder innocent human beings "to defend themselves". All
citizen of Turkey, regardless of race, language, religion, gender,
etc., have their undeniable right and freedom under the law to defend
their rights and freedoms, pursue solutions for the problems they
think they have by only legal, peacefull and democratic ways and
means, definitely not "whatever means is possible" and certainly not
by terrorism.
http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk3.htm
What is the PKK/KADEK ?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The PKK (Kurdish acronym for the "Kurdistan Workers' Party"), formed
in 1978 by Abdullah Öcalan, is the most notorious terror organization
in the world. It has been waging a vicious campaign of terror against
Turkey since 1984 with the external support of certain states and
circles whose aim is to destabilize Turkey.
The PKK was identified as one of the 30 main terrorist organizations
in the world by the US Secretary of State in October 1997, and it was
also described in the same way in US State Department "Patterns of
Global Terrorism" reports.
PKK's terrorist activities have resulted, to date, in the death of
thousands of people, including women, the elderly, children and in
many instances even infants. The PKK has also murdered over one
hundred school teachers, who became inevitable targets of the
terrorists since it was judged that PKK's subversive views could be
most easily imposed on the uneducated and the ignorant. Lists giving
the figures of ordinary individuals and public servants, ruthlessly
killed or maimed by the PKK terrorists, are in annex.
The PKK has employed murder, intimidation, kidnapping and destruction
to achieve its nefarious objectives. It targets ordinary people,
because it aims to subjugate the local population in southeastern
Turkey into supporting its evil deeds. The PKK has attacked the entire
inhabitants of villages in southeast Anatolia. These attacks are also
designed to make the region uninhabitable. The PKK destroys schools,
sets forests on fire, blows up railways and bridges, plants mines on
roads, burns down construction machinery, and demolishes health
centers. A list containing the figures of material damage caused by
PKK's terrorist attacks is also in annex.
In response, the authorities trained the villagers to defend
themselves and also moved some people to locations where they would be
safer. These two measures, intended to protect the local population
against terrorism, have been at the center of a misinformation
campaign by the PKK and its sympathizers.
The PKK indiscriminately murders the very people on whose behalf it
purports to act : Turkish citizens of Kurdish origin. Ironically, the
PKK regards Masud Barzani's Kurdish Democratic Party and Jalal
Talabani's Patriotic Union of Kurdistan, the two main Kurdish
groupings in northern Iraq, as its adversaries.
Due to its ability to strike Turkey from Syria and (after the 1991
Gulf War) northern Iraq, the PKK proved for some time a serious threat
to law and order and claimed many victims. Following its operations
against PKK facilities in northern Iraq Turkey restored law and order
throughout the southeastern provinces.
The PKK has been supported and sheltered by some of Turkey's
neighbors, as well as by some others outside the region. Syria and
Greece are the principal countries that have been supporting the PKK
for years. However, with the signing of Adana memorandum on October
20, 1998, the Syrian connection has been broken. Syrian authorities
have promised not to support terrorist activities against Turkey and
taken some steps in this direction. Turkey closely monitors Syrian
compliance with the Adana agreement. Yet, Greece, a NATO ally, backs
the PKK and its affiliates by every means at its disposal. Confessions
and testimonies of dozens of PKK militants arrested in Turkey reveal
that Greek support to PKK terrorism goes much beyond than what was
generally estimated. Most recently, revelations made by the PKK member
Fethi Demir and by ?emdin Sak?k, PKK's "second man" captured in
northern Iraq, have helped to confirm concretely the continuing Greek
support to the PKK. The statement made by Greek Premier Simitis on
November 26, 1998, leaves no room for doubt about the position of
Greece vis-a-vis the PKK : "the PKK is an organization fighting for
the rights of the Kurdish minority and using various means to reach
this end." Can there be a more explicit approval of PKK terrorism?
There is of course other evidence and documentation concerning Greek
support to PKK terrorism.
The PKK terrorist organization, among others, employs the following
a) Indiscriminate terror against the Turkish citizens of Kurdish
ethnic origin mainly in southeastern Turkey. Targets included
children, women, and the elderly. In some places PKK terrorists have
wiped out isolated, dispersed settlements and hamlets.
The aim is to force the local population into submission, to make them
provide sanctuary.
b) Indiscriminate terror against non-Kurdish population. The purpose
is to discredit the state institutions and to cause instability.
c) Terror against selected targets.
- Assassination of well known personalities, judicial, law enforcement
and security personnel.
- Assassination of state functionaries that provide services to the
local population in southeastern Turkey (civil servants, teachers,
health personnel, technical personnel, etc.).
- Assassination of village guardsmen and their families.
- Attacks on and occupation of official missions of Turkey abroad
(diplomatic, consular, commercial, tourism, etc.) as well as
headquarters or branch offices of semi-official institutions (Turkish
Airlines offices, banks, etc.).Attacks and acts of arson against the
houses, business facilities, associations and mosques of the Turkish
community living in western Europe, mainly in Germany. These acts of
terror are mostly carried out through proxies and front organizations
that are permitted by the authorities of the host countries to operate
in those states.
d) Terror within the ranks of the PKK, against informants and
repentant militants. Over the years, Öcalan has ordered the killing of
numerous PKK defectors and potential rivals. In the past decade, the
PKK has conducted assassinations, kidnappings and acts of arson in
Western Europe against former PKK members and defectors.
Assassinations of PKK defectors occurred in Sweden in 1984 and 1985;
in Denmark in 1985; in the Netherlands in 1987 and 1989; in Germany in
1986, 1987, and 1988.
e) Wider hit and run tactics against border posts and military
patrols.
f) Terrorist attacks against industrial infrastructure, oil
facilities, social facilities, and tourist sites with the aim of
weakening the Turkish economy and tarnishing its image. As part of
these terror acts, the PKK bombed passenger trains, ferryboats, and
buses. Several of these attacks resulted in civilian casualties. In
1993 and 1994 it also staged a series of kidnappings of foreigners in
southeastern Turkey to frighten away tourists and to embarrass the
Turkish government.
g) The head of the terrorist organization PKK has advocated and
ordered the use of suicide bombings against Turkish targets that
resulted in the deaths of security personnel and civilians, and
injuries to many more.
Obviously, such an enterprise of crime and violence like the PKK
requires colossal human and financial resources. As there are no
legitimate ways or means to obtain the required resources, PKK's only
option is to resort to illegal and illegitimate methods. Hence, the
PKK is heavily engaged in organized crime activities, including
extortion, drug trafficking, arms smuggling, human smuggling (illegal
immigration), and abduction of children. Such racketeering takes place
particularly in western Europe.
The PKK has been carrying out its activities abroad through its front
organization ERNK (Kurdish acronym for the "Kurdistan National
Liberation Front"), the so-called "Kurdistan Parliament in Exile", its
mouthpiece MED TV, and through other affiliated offices, centers and
associations.
Through these front establishments, the PKK organizes and carries out
its illegal activities. It also uses them to make its propaganda so as
to influence and mislead the public opinion in west European countries
for obtaining popular support to its subversive ends.
The abduction of children and youngsters in some European countries by
these front organizations deserves special mention. According to
police reports and press articles in several west European countries,
the PKK recently organized kidnappings of children, of 14-17 years of
age, in Varmland/Sweden through the ERNK, and in Celle/Germany through
"Kurdish Information Bureaus", or "Kurdish Culture Centers". The
statements of some of the abducted children, as well as press and
police reports reveal that the PKK kidnapped these youngsters, took
them to its camps, located in some other west European countries, and
forced them into training as terrorist militants.
The Turkish authorities spared no effort in drawing the attention of
the west European countries to such criminal and illegal activities of
the PKK, but unfortunately their calls to prevent these activities
usually fell on deaf ears. The complaints of the children's families,
however, attracted the attention of the public and thus created a
strong reaction towards what the PKK and its affiliates have in fact
been doing for years. The police in Sweden and Germany are now
investigating the matter.
Terrorism constitutes today one of the most serious violations of
human rights, in particular the fundamental right to life. By
murdering thousands of people, the PKK has violated the right to life.
Therefore, all the PKK terrorists, including their head Öcalan, must
answer in the court of law for their crimes.
All societies threatened by terrorism have the right to take
appropriate measures to protect themselves from violence and to
eradicate terrorism. Turkey's fight against the PKK terrorism is of
this nature and aims not only to maintain security and to protect its
citizens, but also to pave the way for economic and social development
in the regions where this is needed most. This fight against terrorism
observes democratic principles and the rule of law, with great care
being given to respect the rights of innocent civilians.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk4.htm
Who is Abdullah Öcalan ?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Abdullah Öcalan was born in the province of Sanliurfa in 1949. He
speaks Turkish and has only a poor grasp of some Kurdish dialects. He
had a conventional education and his original wish was to be an
officer in the Turkish Army. He failed the entrance examination for
the military academy. He did, however, gain admission in 1971 to the
Ankara University Political Sciences Faculty. There, he joined the
underground movements trying to overthrow Turkey's parliamentary
system. He was expelled from the university for non-attendance and his
illegal activities.
The cell of terrorists which he controlled soon broke links with other
groups. It was known for its use of extreme violence and the "Apocu's"
(Followers of Abdullah Öcalan), as the PKK was called in its early
days, had a special trademark: they hacked off the noses of their
opponents. In the late 1970's, Öcalan collaborated closely with the
Soviet Union and with Syria which were attempting to create political
turmoil in Turkey. In 1980, Öcalan fled to Syria. He began to use
Syrian facilities, including camps in the Bekaa Valley, Lebanese
territory under Syrian control, to train terrorist groups for
cross-border terrorist attacks against targets in Turkey. He started
to inject an ethnic dimension to his terrorist activities, though this
usually had to be imposed on local populations by violent means,
including the kidnapping young men at gun point and then forcing them
to undergo indoctrination and join his movement. In August 1984,
Öcalan's terrorist groups began attacking Turkish police stations and
similar targets in the southeastern provinces north of the border with
Syria and Iraq.
The PKK operates along the familiar lines of traditional communist
parties and carries out terrorist activities under the rigid direction
of its Central Committee. Both its "political" and "military" wings
are controlled directly by Öcalan. As its sole head, Öcalan, has
callously masterminded thousands of PKK's terrorist activities against
Turkey and its people. As such, he has been responsible for thousands
of deaths, kidnappings, mutilations and attacks on innocent people
during his long years as a professional terrorist and murderer.
In October 1998, Turkey warned Syria that it would take action unless
it ceased its support for Öcalan and PKK terrorism. It formally
requested the extradition of Öcalan to Turkey. As a result, Öcalan was
compelled to leave Syria where he had been given shelter for almost
two decades. Furthermore, by an agreement signed between the two
countries on October 20, 1998 in Adana/Turkey, the Syrian Government
for the first time designated the PKK as a terrorist organization, and
pledged not to allow the presence and the activities of the PKK on its
territory. Later, Öcalan was forced to leave Moscow, where he had
escaped from Syria, following political and diplomatic contacts
between Turkey and the Russian Federation.
Öcalan was apprehended in Rome while trying to illegally enter Italy
with a false passport on November 12, 1998. As the British Government
put it, Öcalan's arrest was "a significant advance in the
international community's fight against terrorism."
Öcalan is not only a terrorist but also a common criminal, being
sought by the Turkish courts under charges of homicide and incitement
to homicide. There is thus a red corner bulletin for him issued by the
Interpol. In accordance with a court decision given in 1990, Germany
also had an arrest warrant on Öcalan again for homicide and incitement
to homicide.
All democratic, law-abiding countries as well as international
institutions are obligated to take a consistent and firm stance in
combating terrorism and bringing terrorists to justice. Under
obligations and commitments within the framework of the United
Nations, the Council of Europe, the OSCE, the NATO, and the EU, no
country or government can provide terrorists with safe-haven or evade
its responsibilities in the efforts to eliminate terrorism. Therefore,
Öcalan should never be granted political asylum anywhere and he has to
be extradited to Turkey to face trial for his crimes against Turkish
citizens.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk5.htm
PKK's Involvement in Organized Crimes
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The PKK engages in organized crimes such as drug trafficking and arms
smuggling, extortion, human smuggling, abduction of children and money
laundering in an attempt to recruit militants and to obtain financial
resources needed to carry out its terrorist activities.
The "Sputnik Operation" conducted in a coordinated fashion in some
European countries in September 1996 exposed PKK's links with
organized crime and money laundering activities.
On the other hand, it is known that the PKK, together with other
organized crime gangs, is also behind the recent wave of illegal
immigration to Italy. PKK's objective is to create international
pressure and antipathy against Turkey.
Moreover, the PKK plays an important role in drug trafficking which
constitutes one of the most evil crimes of our age. The British weekly
magazine "The Spectator" underlined this fact in its 28 November-5
December 1998 issue by saying that "?According to the British security
services sources the PKK is responsible for 40 percent of the heroin
sold in the European Union?" .
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk6.htm
Drug Trafficking and Terrorist Organizations
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
All terrorist organizations need to raise funds to sustain their
violent activities and resort to illegal means to finance their
crimes. Drug trafficking comes at the top of this list of illegal
money raising activities, followed by robbery, extortion, kidnapping,
blackmailing and arms smuggling.
In recent years, it has become increasingly evident that terrorism and
drug trafficking are intertwined. The terms "narco-terrorism" and
"narco-terrorists" have started to gain circulation in describing the
link between terrorist organizations and narcotics smugglers. This
fact is illustrated by certain international documents. The UN
Convention Against Illicit Traffic In Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic
Substances (1988) refers to the relationship between illicit drug
traffic and other organized criminal activities which undermine the
stability, security and legitimacy of sovereign states.
Paragraph 5 of the UN International Narcotics Control Board (INCB)'s
1992 report points out that "illicit cultivation of narcotic plants
and illicit trafficking in drugs continue to be a threat to the
political, economic and social stability of several countries. Links
appear to exist between illicit cultivation and drug trafficking and
the activities of subversive organizations in some countries."
The 1993 INCB report draws attention to the organic connections
between drug cartels and terrorist organizations, and also to the
globalization of drug smuggling. The successive INCB reports point out
that these drug cartels concentrate their activities in ethnically and
economically troubled regions of the world. It is no coincidence that
terrorist organizations thrive in the very same regions.
The Vienna Declaration and Program of Action adopted at the World
Conference on Human Rights (25 June 1993) stresses that "the acts,
methods and practices of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations
as well as linkage in some countries to drug trafficking are
activities aimed at the destruction of human rights, fundamental
freedoms and democracy, threatening territorial integrity, security of
states and destabilizing legitimately constituted governments, and the
international community should take the necessary steps to enhance
cooperation to prevent and combat terrorism."
The Final Communiqué of the Council of Europe Pompidou Group 2nd
Pan-European Ministerial Conference (Strasbourg, 4 February 1994)
underlines the fact that "considering the continuous increase in and
the spread of drug trafficking incidents, the involvement of violent
organizations in such activities constitute a serious threat to the
contemporary society" (Art.9), and thus, "it is vital for the security
forces to combat terrorism effectively" (Art.l5).
The UN Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism
adopted at the 49th session of the General Assembly, underlines the
concern by the international community at the growing and dangerous
links between terrorists groups, drug traffickers and their
paramilitary gangs which have resorted to all types of violence, thus
endangering the constitutional order of States and violating basic
human rights. This Declaration also emphasizes the desirability of
closer cooperation and coordination among States in combating crimes
closely connected with terrorism, including drug trafficking, unlawful
arms trade, money laundering and smuggling of nuclear and other
potentially deadly materials.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk8.htm
Foreign Press Reports
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* In January 1992, the Bremen Police arrested a "Kurd" selling drugs.
The police found a bunch of keys in his pocket, which belonged to an
apartment where "Kurds" lived. Hanging on the walls of the said
apartment were posters of the PKK and its leader Abdullah Öcalan. The
police also found some clues suggesting that the PKK finances its
armed struggle by the heroin trade (SAT-1 TV, 24 Hours, 6 January
1992).
* In 1992, a total number of 2,069 drug addicts died in Germany. In
the same year, the German police apprehended some children aged 10-12,
coming from southeastern Turkey and selling drugs in Hamburg. A child
of 8 carrying a firearm was also arrested. All these children
confessed that the PKK was using them to sell drugs, since they did
not have penal responsibility. The police seized 30 kg. of heroin from
a "Kurd" who was said to have transferred DM 150,000 to his partners.
The estimated figure the PKK earns from the narcotics trade is more
than 56 million DM (VOX TV ; Germany, 12 February 1993).
* In 1993, more than 50 PKK members were arrested by the Essen Police
of Germany. The Federal Criminal Department in Wiesbaden found out
that the PKK was organizing drug trafficking in Germany and the
narcotics trade in Hamburg, Bremen, Frankfurt and Essen was under the
control of the PKK (German Daily "NRZ," 30 March 1993).
* The Hamburg Criminal Police arrested a band of Kurdish drug
smugglers on 15 September 1993. 11-year-old children, who were also
arrested with the other members of the band, later confessed to the
police that the PKK illegally brought them from Turkey to Germany in
order to make them sell drugs for the organization (Hamburg Local TV
Broadcast, 15 September 1993).
* Three years of intensive police investigation by the Slagelse Police
and the Narcotics Section of the National Police Force in Denmark
resulted in the solution of several armed robberies whose spoils were
used to finance narcotics purchases. The police captured a Danish
person, who had links with two Turkish narcotics kingpins living in
Denmark. During the trial the close relationship between these people
and the PKK was proven. The superintendent Niels Bech of the National
Police Force expressed that large parts of the profits from the
narcotics sales in Denmark have returned to Turkey. In one case DDK
140,000 were sent to Turkey and kilos of heroin was sent to Europe in
return (Danish Daily, "Berlingske Tidende," 31 October 1993).
* Two young PKK members (aged 14 and 16) were caught by the police
selling drugs at the Trabrennbahn Train Station near Wandsbeck on 26
September 1994 ("Bild-Hamburg" 28 September 1994).
* On 5-6 October 1994 the "Bild" reported that narcotics were being
distributed from Jork in Alten Land to Northern Germany and that the
Kurdish dealers transferred 15 million DM to their collaborators in
Turkey.
* On 24 October 1994 the German magazine "Focus" wrote that in the
last 9 years 315 PKK members were involved in drug trafficking around
Europe, 154 of whom were captured in Germany.
* Ralf Brottscheller, the Senator of Interior of Bremen, accused the
PKK of extortion and organized narcotics smuggling ("Focus," 18
September 1995).
* In France, the Aulnay Sous Bois Public Security Units and Paris
Bureau of Combating Narcotics Trafficking conducted an operation which
was completed after long and careful preparations of 18 months. 30
people involved in narcotics trafficking on behalf of the PKK and the
Mafia active in France and Belgium were taken into custody after the
operation (French Press, 4 November 1996).
* The Belgian Gendarmerie raided a camp in Zutendaal/Genk, in which
the PKK militants were being trained, and apprehended 35 people,
including children and some internationally wanted criminals
("Arnhemse Courant," 22 November 1996).
* The administrators of a facade company helping the PKK's activities
in France were taken into custody in Paris (French Press, 25 February
1997).
* The "Observatoire Geopolitique Des Drogues" noted in its monthly
report that the biggest heroin seizure in Hungary to date was made on
December 12, 1996, aboard a Turkish bus belonging to the Toros Line
company. The Turkish traffickers, caught with 42 kg. heroin turned out
to be "Kurds." The report mentions the case of a Romanian citizen who,
upon his arrest with 2 kg. heroin by the Turkish police in Edirne in
September 1995, admitted that he was running for the PKK drugs in one
direction and explosives in the other.
The report also notes that 65 percent of the drugs confiscated by the
Romanian customs officers are found on passenger vehicles and that
"every time Romanian police make a drug haul at a Turkish company,
Kurds are involved" ("The Geopolitical Drug Dispatch", No. 65, March
1997).
* A high level member of the PKK, known as the PKK chief in the
Hannover area, was arrested in Berlin. He had been wanted by the
German police on charges of arson attacks, and damage to private
property. The police found out evidence regarding the PKK's
involvement in illicit labor trafficking ("Berliner Zeitung" 4 April
1997).
* 20 refugees were arrested in a police raid on a refugee hostel which
was discovered to be a PKK base, in Grimma, Bahren. The operation was
conducted jointly by the German police and experts from the Federal
Criminal Department. The police confiscated various fire arms,
thousands of DM and receipts. These immigrants were actively involved
in the activities of the PKK and its facade branches (German Press, 4
April 1997).
* The Bavarian police conducted a series of operations against the PKK
militants in refugee camps, arrested 2, and took into custody 17 of
them (Statement by Straubing Police Directorate dated 17 June 1997).
* The PKK transfers people, weapons and drugs through the FRY (Former
Republic of Yugoslavia) and purchases weapons in return (Croatian
daily "Vjesnik" August 1997).
* The "Focus" magazine remarked on 23 March 1998 that members of the
PKK invested the money laundered from drug trafficking and extortion
in the real estate market in Celle, Germany.
* On August 1, 1998, the Croatian and Slovenian security forces
jointly confiscated 38 kg. of heroin in a vehicle bound for western
Europe. According to the Croatian reports, the shipment of the heroin
was realized by Turkish citizens "who are most probably members of the
PKK" This is consistent with the statements made by Slovenian security
forces who have pointed to a "reasonable suspicion" that a member of
the PKK is involved in the smuggling (Croatian and Slovenian press
reviews, 6 August 1998).
* Four "Kurdish" people were captured with 2.6 kg. heroin, the largest
amount of narcotics ever captured in west Norway. It is thought that
the four people caught were merely couriers and that the trafficking
was carried out by a "Turkish/Kurdish" network (Bergen, 7 August
1998).
* "?The PKK has financed its war against Turkey by extortion and the
sale of heroin, and according to British security service sources it
is responsible for 40 percent of the heroin sold in the European
Union?" (British weekly magazine "The Spectator", 28 November-5
December 1998 issue).
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk9.htm
Reports of Foreign Police and Foreign Officials
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* In January 1990, a PKK member was arrested in Switzerland for
selling drugs on behalf of the PKK. In the same month a 13-year-old
person, also linked to the PKK, was captured in the Netherlands and
was released as being too young to prosecute.
* A Turkish citizen of Kurdish origin, apprehended in France on 22
January 1991, confessed that he had been trading drugs in France on
behalf of the PKK and that the drugs were transported by trucks or
sometimes by tourist vehicles and then distributed to different cities
not only in France but in various other countries in Europe as well.
* After being arrested on 7 March 1991 in France, a "Kurdish" person
confessed that the drugs he was selling belonged to the PKK.
* Another Turkish citizen of "Kurdish" descent, captured with 48 kg.
of heroin in Arnheim in November 1991, was found out to be a PKK
member.
* The German Police reports underline the fact that l,103 kg. of
heroin was seized by the police in 1991 and 400 of 735 suspects
involved in the drug trading incidents were PKK members. This ratio
mounted to 450/735 in 1992 and 300/457 in 1993.
* The US Department of State Bureau of International Narcotics Matters
expressed in its International Narcotics Control Strategy Report
(1992) that the two-thirds of the people involved in drug trafficking
incidents in Europe are PKK-oriented.
* An active PKK member working as a truck driver, who was known to
have stood as a candidate in Bonn in the 1992 elections for the PKK's
so-called National Assembly, was seized in Troisdorf, Germany, while
transporting substantial amounts of drugs.
* In 1993, the police seized 200 kg. of heroin in London. Further
investigation revealed that the drug traders were working for the PKK.
* A police operation in Offenbach, Germany on 7 January 1993, led to
the seizure of 5 kilos of heroin. Among the seven people captured by
the police was a person known as the "PKK's accountant."
* As a consequence of the operations conducted by the German police in
Hamburg, Bremen and Bad Bramstad during May-October 1993, 15.7 kg. of
heroin was confiscated and 22 people were apprehended, including PKK
members and supporters. The criminals turned out to have requested
political asylum from the German authorities.
* 15 Turkish citizens with "Kurdish" descent were arrested in
connection with 1.6 kg. heroin seized by the German police in
Recklinghausen, Germany, on 27 October 1993. Among those were the
participants at pro-PKK demonstrations in Turkey.
* A message by the German Interpol dated October 26, 1993, pointed out
that six Turkish citizens with Kurdish origin were arrested on charges
of laundering the proceeds from drug trafficking in the Netherlands,
Spain, Italy and Germany. Large sums of cash, thought to be laundered
money, were captured by the German police.
* Another Turkish citizen of "Kurdish" origin, captured in Caracas,
Venezuela on 10 November 1993, while carrying 3.5 kg. of cocaine,
confessed that she was a PKK courier. This incident is said to prove
the links of the PKK with the drug cartels even in Latin America.
* The NCIS estimated that the 44 percent of 1993 budget of the PKK as
430 million French Francs, came from illicit drug trafficking.
* During a six-week campaign initiated by the Stuttgart city police in
January 1994, 76 people were apprehended, including some who had been
formerly prosecuted in Turkey because of their links with the
terrorist organization.
* On 17 August 1994 the German Criminal Authority informed the Turkish
Security Authorities that a political refugee, resident in Kiel, was
engaged in drug trade and money transfer to the PKK.
* The US Deputy Secretary of State in charge of narcotics, Ambassador
Robert Felbard, answering a question at a press briefing in February
1994 regarding the PKK supervision of drug trafficking in Europe and
the United States, stated that the US had quite a bit of information
about the PKK's involvement in the trafficking of heroin into Europe.
* The Amsterdam police, during an anti-drug operation on 11 December
1994, seized numerous firearms, machine guns, bombs and PKK documents
and arrested several PKK militants.
* The Bavarian Minister of Interior, Günter Beckstein, referring to
the 30 PKK militants captured in Europe during the last two years,
stated that the PKK has taken control of the European narcotics market
(Turkish daily, "Cumhuriyet," 31 July 1995).
* The Director of German Terrorism Research Forum, Rolp Tophoven, has
stated that a large majority of the people arrested on charges of
narcotics smuggling are of "Kurdish" descent, many of whom confess
committing the crime on behalf of the terrorist PKK (Turkish daily,
"Yeni Yüzy?l," 12 November 1995).
* Olivier Foll, another expert on international terrorism, noted that
the PKK members, when apprehended for illegal possession of narcotics,
confess to smuggling drugs for the PKK and exploit the "political"
dimension of the issue as an excuse for their crimes. Mr. Foll
criticized the "Kurdish" policies of some European statesmen who grant
concessions to the PKK (Turkish daily "Yeni Yüzy?l," 12 November
1995).
* During the Sputnik operation of September 18, 1996, the Belgian
police seized 350 million Belgian Francs that were thought to have
been the proceeds from narcotics trafficking. Seven people having ties
with the PKK were apprehended in connection with the crime. The
Sputnik operation also revealed that the MED-TV, the mouthpiece of the
PKK, is involved in PKK's money laundering activities. The MED-TV
representative in Germany was taken into custody as he was unable to
explain the source of the 500 million BF, used in financing the
station. It was later found that he was using revenues from drug
trafficking for financing not only the MED-TV but also the so-called
"Kurdistan Parliament in Exile" (KPE). The Belgian police seized many
firearms in the KPE building they searched.
* In August 1997, the German police conducted a comprehensive
operation against the PKK members in Cologne in which six members of
the PKK were arrested. After the operation, Cologne police officers
issued a statement emphsizing the fact that the PKK is involved in
organized crime including extortion in Germany to finance its acts of
terrorism.
* The Göttingen police of Germany, after a 14-month investigation,
managed to penetrate the drug smuggling network with two "Kurdish"
informers in May 1998 and found out that the revenues from 40 kg. of
heroin marketed were channeled to the PKK.
* The KDP (The Kurdistan Democratic Party of Masud Barzani) forces
discovered extensive narcotics farms in the Gali Pes Agha region of
northern Iraq, captured from the PKK in May 1997.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk10.htm
Turkish Police Reports
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* A PKK member, captured by the police with 14.5 kg. of heroin on 1
September 1993, confessed that he was acting on behalf of the PKK
abroad, and that he was a drug-smuggler, transferring 30 percent of
the proceeds to the terrorist organization.
* Following the confiscation of 20.3 kg. of heroin in Duisburg,
Germany, two PKK supporters were arrested by the German police. This
triggered a police investigation in Turkey, which led to the seizure
of firearms and munitions in a vehicle owned by the same family in the
city of Mersin on 12 May 1993.
* A PKK militant of Iranian origin confessed that the terrorist
organization has drug production facilities in Iran and that Osman
Öcalan (the brother of Abdullah Öcalan and a leading figure of the
terrorist organization PKK) is in charge of the production of
narcotics which are later marketed mainly in Europe to raise money for
the organization.
* Two PKK militants, arrested with 30 kg. of heroin, expressed that
they were aiming to sell the drugs to provide financial contributions
to the PKK.
* The Turkish Security Forces seized 120 kg. of heroin and 40 kg. of
hemp seeds (cannabis) in a PKK shelter in southeastern Turkey.
* One PKK member, who was put in jail on 3 July 1993 for getting
involved in the terrorist acts of the PKK in Hakkari and released on
20 October 1993, was captured with 36 kg. of heroine, 140 kg. of
precursors and some other drug-producing material.
* Another member of the PKK, sentenced to 6 years of imprisonment,
confessed that he was in charge of establishing the links between the
drug smugglers and the terrorist organization.
* During the operations conducted by the Turkish security forces, two
people, captured with 48 kg. of hashish, were arrested as they were
found out to be involved in narco-trade so as to provide financial
support to the PKK.
* Another Turkish citizen said to be of "Kurdish-origin", caught by
the police in possession of 117 kilos of hashish in Istanbul, was
later found to have participated in the PKK-led attack on the Turkish
Consulate General in Frankfurt on March 1l, 1992.
* One Turkish citizen of "Kurdish-origin" apprehended in July 1994
confessed that he was involved in drug trafficking to raise money for
the PKK. The police, making use of the information he disclosed, were
able to arrest some other members of the terrorist organization.
* On 1 August 1994 a PKK member, apprehended in Diyarbak?r with 2 kg.
of heroin, acknowledged that he was selling drugs for the PKK. He also
informed the police that some PKK members were cultivating drugs and
gave the names of the places where hemp seeds (cannabis) were grown.
In further investigation the police captured 120,000 roots of hemp
seeds in a village named Dibek.
* On 21 August 1994 the Turkish security forces apprehended two people
with 150 kg. of hashish and considerable amounts of hemp seeds and
hashish growing material. The security forces also captured PKK
documents and propaganda material and two machine guns.
* Diyarbak?r Police, conducting an operation against the PKK on 17
July 1994, apprehended three people with 80 kg. of hashish, PKK
documents, a gun and three ERNK seals. These people confessed that the
PKK ordered them to sell the drugs and purchase firearms and food
supplies for the organization. The said people turned out to have
participated in various terror acts such as the rocket attack to and
storming of a police residence in Lice on 29 June, the bomb attack on
the residence of a judge in Diyarbak?r on 16 January 1994, and a bomb
attack on a police patrol car.
* Seven people captured in the city of Cizre on 23 March 1994 with
398.5 kilos of heroin confessed to smuggling narcotics on behalf of
the PKK.
* The security forces have had strong evidence suggesting that a
network composed of PKK militants is involved in drug trading in Zaho,
northern Iraq. The network is known to hand the drugs over to clients
either in Zaho or in Turkey. Therefore, it was not very surprising
that during the operation by the Turkish Armed Forces in northern Iraq
against the PKK, the Turkish army discovered a large farm where the
terrorists cultivated hemp (cannabis). The farm was located near the
PKK's Pirvela Camp in the Bahara valley. The Turkish military officers
announced that the amount of drugs captured during the operation in
northern Iraq reached 4.5 tons.
* In a raid on 7 March 1995 on the residence of a person, suspected by
the police of having contact with the PKK militants, the Turkish
police seized large amounts of drugs, drug precursor chemicals,
firearms and ammunitions.
* Three of the seven people caught with 21.5 kilos of heroin in
Hamburg, Germany, have been found out to have been formerly arrested
in Turkey on charges of PKK membership.
* The two people caught by the police with 20.6 kilos of narcotics in
?zmir on August 5, 1996, have been found out to be running an
association linked to the PKK in the Netherlands.
* Another PKK sympathizer, who was captured with acetic anhydride, a
heroin precursor chemical, by the Turkish security forces in the city
of Van on March 24, 1998, was found to have been previously arrested
for providing logistic support to the PKK.
* The Turkish security forces have strong evidence that the PKK
militants, settled in the Iranian part of our common border, receive
commissions from the narcotics smugglers called "taxes or donations."
***
The role of the PKK in incidents given above is undeniable, both
because of the documents seized by the security forces and the
backgrounds of the arrested people. Still, in certain Western
countries, the activities of this terrorist organization, are
regrettably being tolerated.
After the prohibition of PKK in France and Germany towards the end of
1993, a wave of optimism emerged in Turkish public opinion that the
rest of the European countries would follow suit by adopting similar
measures. This, however, has not happened to date. Yet, it is clear
that the prohibition of the PKK and its front organizations in
European countries would also be in the interest of these countries.
The PKK is responsible for narcotics trafficking, extortion, robbery,
and illicit arms and human smuggling activities, and thus circumvent
the rule of law and compromises the security and stability of the
countries in which it operates. It is no coincidence that drug
trafficking cases predominantly occur in those countries where the
organization of the PKK is extensive and tolerated.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk11.htm
Is There A "Kurdish Question" in Turkey?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
As the first melting pot and encounter point of many different
civilizations and cultures, present-day Turkey contains a multitude of
ethnic, religious and cultural elements. Turkey is proud of its great
heritage. This centuries-long shared way of life is perfectly
second-nature for the people of Turkey.
Yet, different ethnic identities, including the Kurdish, are
acknowledged and accepted in Turkey. The state does not categorize its
citizens along ethnic lines nor does it impose an ethnic identity on
them. Population censuses in Turkey never count people on the basis of
their ethnic origins. But, this does not prevent an individual citizen
to identify himself or herself in terms of a specific ethnic category.
That is a private affair and ultimately a matter of personal
preference. Public expressions and manifestations of ethnic identity
are prohibited neither by law nor by social custom. Folklore is rich
and colorful and local variations, customs and traditions are
protected and supported.
Turkey is a constitutional state governed by the rule of law.
Democracy rests on a parliamentary system of government, respect for
human rights and on the supremacy of law. Multi-party politics, free
elections, a growing tradition of local government mark the democratic
way of life in Turkey.
Constitutional citizenship is one of the principles upon which the
Turkish state was founded. The Turkish Constitution stipulates that
the State and the Nation are indivisible, and that all citizens
irrespective of their ethnic, racial or religious origin, are equal
before the law.
For historical and cultural reasons, and under stipulations of binding
international treaties, the concept of "minority" applies specifically
to certain groups of non-Moslem citizens. In fact, the social fabric
of Turkey is a unique real life case of the OSCE principle that "not
all ethnic, cultural, linguistic or religious differences necessarily
lead to the creation of national minorities". Our citizens of Kurdish
ethnic origin are not discriminated against and they feel themselves
to be equal members of the society. Many have risen to the highest
positions in the Republic. They share the same opportunities and the
same destiny as the rest of the population.
Ethnicity is not a factor in the political geography of Turkey. That
is, the predominant majority of the Turkish citizens of Kurdish
descent live in western Turkey, with the greatest concentration being
in Istanbul. Even in eastern and southeastern Turkey, the Turkish
citizens of Kurdish ethnic origin do not constitute a majority. The
unitary structure of the State reflects the equality and togetherness
of different geographic regions of Turkey.
Therefore, it is simply neither understandable nor acceptable for
Turkey to discuss "the respect for social, economic and legitimate
political aspirations of Kurds" as if the Turkish citizens of Kurdish
ethnic descent constitute a different and separate community. They are
citizens of a nation that has been sharing for centuries the same
values with respect to language, religion, culture and patriotic
identity, common history and the will for a mutual future.
It is of cardinal importance to differentiate between a militant
organization, which resorts systematically to terrorism as well as all
kinds of organized crime, and the phenomenon of Kurdish ethnicity. It
is evident that our citizens of Kurdish ethnic origin are law-abiding
people. Most of them live in western Turkey, drawn by economic
attraction. They are of their own choice integrated into the society
and its economic, social and cultural aspects. In Turkey, citizens of
all ethnic origins can rise to the highest political positions and
ranks such as cabinet ministers and members of parliament. Throughout
the centuries, much mixing has taken place through intermarriages.
Progress in industrial, cultural and social fields, as well as
urbanization, has also contributed to the voluntary and natural
process of integration.
The population in southeast Anatolia, like our citizens in other
regions of the country, participate fully in the political life of
Turkey; they freely make their voices heard in local administrations,
in the municipalities, the Parliament, and the central government
through elected representatives. It is nothing out of the ordinary for
the individuals of different ethnic origins to participate in the
political life of the country. Even the most militant circles concede
the fact that there are no obstacles to social mobility of individuals
from different ethnic origins to any profession or career, whether
public or private.
The fundamental rights and freedoms of all Turkish citizens are
secured by the relevant provisions of the Constitution. However, those
rights have been threatened by the PKK, creating terror among the
populace.
None of our citizens of Kurdish ethnic origin, notwithstanding
allegations to the contrary, who publicly or politically asserts
his/her Kurdish ethnic identity risks harassment or persecution.
However, acts or statements made against the "territorial integrity"
of Turkey are subject to legal prosecution under the law. If these
allegations were true, none of the publications in Kurdish whose
contents are full of assertions of Kurdish ethnic identity would have
been tolerated by the authorities.
In the same vein, Turkey is often accused of refusing to negotiate
with the terrorist organization PKK. These accusations contradict the
fundamental rules of international law. Negotiating with a terrorist
organization, responsible for thousands of murders, would be
tantamount to justifying and encouraging terrorism.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk12.htm
Is the Use of Kurdish Banned in Turkey ?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Contrary to the allegations of some biased quarters, there is no
restriction on the use of languages in Turkey. Presently, there are
many private radio-TV stations broadcasting and numerous books and
journals published both in Turkish and in various dialects of
"Kurdish" throughout the country. It should be mentioned here that
"Kurdish" can be hardly depicted as "a single language" linguistically
or socially. Many scholars point out the fact that there are many
different local languages and dialects used in southeastern Turkey
such as Zaza and Kirmanchi which are only as close to each other as
French and English. These local languages and dialects are so
dissimilar that people living in one village cannot even communicate
with others from a neighboring village. As a result, Turkish has
become the sole medium of communication in the region. It is ironic
that Turkish is also used in PKK's militant training camps and in the
communication between its headquarters and terrorists as their common
language.
The official language of the Republic of Turkey is Turkish, but
Armenian, Ladino, Greek, the different dialects of "Kurdish", etc. are
spoken freely in daily life. There is only one official language in
the country. However, in this respect Turkey does not constitute a
unique and exceptional case either in Europe or among other democratic
countries.
It should also be underlined that expressions of ethnic identity such
as the use of local languages are viewed as private domain matters.
Thus, they are not the subject of law and are therefore not regulated
by the state. The Turkish language is the language of the Republic of
Turkey and is consequently the only formal language of education and
instruction. The same is true in most democracies. Though it is
possible to help promote them, it is neither realistic nor feasible to
make local tongues official languages of the State.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk13.htm
Socio-Economic Development of Southeastern Turkey and the
Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The Atatürk Dam is the largest component of the Southeastern Anatolia
Project (GAP).
The Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP), consisting of a complex
system of dams, waterworks, irrigation and hydraulic energy network is
a colossal investment of Turkey, the biggest regional initiative ever
attempted in Turkey. It aims at changing the whole complexion of the
arid geography and consequently, the social and economic backwardness
of southeastern Anatolia. The Turkish Government has always believed
that one of the best tools in the struggle against terrorism is
economic development. It is no accident that the region in which the
PKK operates is also the least economically developed part of Turkey.
The Turkish Government is determined to rectify that.
It is a fact that there are socio-economic regional imbalances in
Turkey as in every developing, even some developed countries. Rough
geographic and climatic conditions of southeastern Turkey are the main
factors in this imbalance. Terrorism and economic backwardness of the
region affect all our citizens indiscriminately. Despite many
governmental incentives and low taxation policies, the private sector
had in the past been reluctant to invest in the region, mainly due to
security concerns. Public sector has taken the place of the private
sector and many investments have already been realized by the State.
"GAP" is the best example of that. Government investment in this
region is much higher than the amount of taxes collected there. "GAP"
is a gigantic economic step forward which will change the destiny of
the region. Agricultural production of Turkey will rise by several
folds when this project, which is both energy and irrigation oriented,
is completed. Yet, its important impact is not expected only on
agricultural production, but also on industry, construction, services,
as well as on the Gross Regional Product and employment. When the
project is completed, per capita income will increase three times, and
3.3 million jobs will be created.
The Southeastern Anatolia Project constitutes an integrated project
which contributes significantly to the realization of national targets
for the utilization of development potentials, self-induced economic
growth, social stability and enhancement of export possibilities, and
at the same time aims at the promotion of the principle of sustainable
human development; thus, human development is the core of sustainable
development in the "GAP" region. In this context, the "GAP Social
Action Plan" consists of the basic policies, targets, strategies and
implementation measures for ensuring the social development of the
region through a human-centered approach emphasizing sustainability of
the development. This people-centered development aims to remove the
gap between the project area and the more developed regions in Turkey
and to promote equitable development.
This ambitious socio-economic development drive also explains why the
PKK has been targeting civilians as well as economic and social
projects. PKK's aim is both to terrorize the local population and to
keep the region economically and socially backward so as to recruit
more militants into its own ranks. However, this is being reversed as
the GAP began to bear its fruits. For example, although the so-called
head of the PKK is from ?anl?urfa, there has never been a terrorist
act there, because it is an economically powerful settlement. The
state of emergency still has to continue in some of the provinces of
southeastern Turkey. It is the direct consequence and explicit proof
of the PKK terrorism in the region. It is of utmost importance for
Turkey to augment the allocation of human and financial resources for
the socio-economic development of this region. The precondition to
achieve this task is the eradication of the PKK terrorist
organization.
Eradication of terrorism will not only put an end to the deliberate
devastation by terrorists of the underdeveloped regions of Turkey, but
also release important resources for developmental activity in those
very regions. While terrorism might be viewed as a consequence of
certain underlying causes, it is also incontestably true that
terrorism is itself the main reason of poverty and underdevelopment of
those areas where it is perpetrated.
In sum, our citizens of all ethnic origins -Turkish, Kurdish and
others- living together for more than ten centuries in Turkey have
created a society of patriotic citizens sharing common values. They
established their own nation-state, the Turkish Republic, following
the War of Independence. Ethnic descent is not considered a cause of
discrimination or privilege just as in all modern nation States on the
globe.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
mark rivers
2004-10-06 14:28:11 UTC
Permalink
Post by Ali Asker
You are still making the same mistake in one line you wrote;
+++++++++++++++++


"From: Ali Asker (***@lycos.com)
Subject: Re: Kuwerdish contribution to Oscar 2005
This is the only article in this thread
View: Original Format
Newsgroups: soc.culture.iranian, soc.culture.kurdish,
soc.culture.turkish, soc.culture.iraq
Date: 2004-10-02 04:55:12 PST


We are the TERRORISTS...

We will divide Iran, Turkey, Syria and Iraq in to the pieces until
ever single individual is free from thought control, torture and
brain-washing! Every nation should have their own land where they can
practice their own culture. Iran has consist of about 20 some
different nations and we will tore them in to 20 different countries
and give mollahs a small land where they can practice their barbaric
religion to themselves and only harm temselves.

WE WILL BREAK IRAN IN TO THE PIECES!!! "


+++++++++++++=


This son-of-a-bitch is a terrorist, a raper, torturer and killer of
innocent and defeseless people to advance the imperialistic aims of
his/her terrorist organization, PKK/KADEK terrorist oranization; has
no right to say anything except to sit by his lawyer in the court of
law to hear his sentense announced for the crimes he/she committed.

***@hotmail.com (Ali Asker), a thug of PKK/KADEK terrorist
organization, a full-time, professional and unconditional hater and
murderer of innocent citizens of the Democratic Republic of Turkey,
posts an anti-Turkish hate propaganda fabricated by mouth-pieces of
the same PKK/KADEK terrorist organization which, with the support of
the enemies of Turkey (Syria, Belgium, Sweden, Netherlands,
Switzerland, Denmark, France, Greece and others) and with the income
it obtained from major illegal drug trafficking to Europe, robberies,
extortions, etc. murdered nearly 40 thousands innocent human beings in
Turkey and ruined the health and property of many thousands of others
to destroy democratic goverment of the Republic of Turkey and
establish a marxist, lennist, communist PKK/KADEK dictatorship in
South East Turkey.This is against the laws of all countries in the
World including Turkey. Any country, as well as Turkey, will defend
itself against such terrorism as a most legitimate and legal right.


To hell with you all PKK/KADEK terrorists !!!!!

PKK/KADEK is not a democratically elected represantative of Kurdish
citizens of Turkey. Democratically elected represantatives of the
citizens of Turkey of Kurdish descend are in the goverment as MPs,
ministers, PMs, presidents, judges, etc., certainly not as terrorists
murdering innocent human beings. Plus, all citizens of Turkey of
Kurdish descend, like everybody else, are serving their country as
soldiers, officers and generals in the military, police officers,
lawyers and judges in the law enforcement organizations, pursuing
their lives as business man and woman, professional careers in the
private business and goverment institutions. And, none of them feel
they have to murder innocent human beings "to defend themselves". All
citizen of Turkey, regardless of race, language, religion, gender,
etc., have their undeniable right and freedom under the law to defend
their rights and freedoms, pursue solutions for the problems they
think they have by only legal, peacefull and democratic ways and
means, definitely not "whatever means is possible" and certainly not
by terrorism.





http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk3.htm



What is the PKK/KADEK ?

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The PKK (Kurdish acronym for the "Kurdistan Workers' Party"), formed
in 1978 by Abdullah Öcalan, is the most notorious terror organization
in the world. It has been waging a vicious campaign of terror against
Turkey since 1984 with the external support of certain states and
circles whose aim is to destabilize Turkey.

The PKK was identified as one of the 30 main terrorist organizations
in the world by the US Secretary of State in October 1997, and it was
also described in the same way in US State Department "Patterns of
Global Terrorism" reports.

PKK's terrorist activities have resulted, to date, in the death of
thousands of people, including women, the elderly, children and in
many instances even infants. The PKK has also murdered over one
hundred school teachers, who became inevitable targets of the
terrorists since it was judged that PKK's subversive views could be
most easily imposed on the uneducated and the ignorant. Lists giving
the figures of ordinary individuals and public servants, ruthlessly
killed or maimed by the PKK terrorists, are in annex.

The PKK has employed murder, intimidation, kidnapping and destruction
to achieve its nefarious objectives. It targets ordinary people,
because it aims to subjugate the local population in southeastern
Turkey into supporting its evil deeds. The PKK has attacked the entire
inhabitants of villages in southeast Anatolia. These attacks are also
designed to make the region uninhabitable. The PKK destroys schools,
sets forests on fire, blows up railways and bridges, plants mines on
roads, burns down construction machinery, and demolishes health
centers. A list containing the figures of material damage caused by
PKK's terrorist attacks is also in annex.

In response, the authorities trained the villagers to defend
themselves and also moved some people to locations where they would be
safer. These two measures, intended to protect the local population
against terrorism, have been at the center of a misinformation
campaign by the PKK and its sympathizers.

The PKK indiscriminately murders the very people on whose behalf it
purports to act : Turkish citizens of Kurdish origin. Ironically, the
PKK regards Masud Barzani's Kurdish Democratic Party and Jalal
Talabani's Patriotic Union of Kurdistan, the two main Kurdish
groupings in northern Iraq, as its adversaries.

Due to its ability to strike Turkey from Syria and (after the 1991
Gulf War) northern Iraq, the PKK proved for some time a serious threat
to law and order and claimed many victims. Following its operations
against PKK facilities in northern Iraq Turkey restored law and order
throughout the southeastern provinces.

The PKK has been supported and sheltered by some of Turkey's
neighbors, as well as by some others outside the region. Syria and
Greece are the principal countries that have been supporting the PKK
for years. However, with the signing of Adana memorandum on October
20, 1998, the Syrian connection has been broken. Syrian authorities
have promised not to support terrorist activities against Turkey and
taken some steps in this direction. Turkey closely monitors Syrian
compliance with the Adana agreement. Yet, Greece, a NATO ally, backs
the PKK and its affiliates by every means at its disposal. Confessions
and testimonies of dozens of PKK militants arrested in Turkey reveal
that Greek support to PKK terrorism goes much beyond than what was
generally estimated. Most recently, revelations made by the PKK member
Fethi Demir and by ?emdin Sak›k, PKK's "second man" captured in
northern Iraq, have helped to confirm concretely the continuing Greek
support to the PKK. The statement made by Greek Premier Simitis on
November 26, 1998, leaves no room for doubt about the position of
Greece vis-a-vis the PKK : "the PKK is an organization fighting for
the rights of the Kurdish minority and using various means to reach
this end." Can there be a more explicit approval of PKK terrorism?
There is of course other evidence and documentation concerning Greek
support to PKK terrorism.

The PKK terrorist organization, among others, employs the following
methods in the perpetration of its crimes:

a) Indiscriminate terror against the Turkish citizens of Kurdish
ethnic origin mainly in southeastern Turkey. Targets included
children, women, and the elderly. In some places PKK terrorists have
wiped out isolated, dispersed settlements and hamlets.

The aim is to force the local population into submission, to make them
provide sanctuary.

b) Indiscriminate terror against non-Kurdish population. The purpose
is to discredit the state institutions and to cause instability.

c) Terror against selected targets.

- Assassination of well known personalities, judicial, law enforcement
and security personnel.

- Assassination of state functionaries that provide services to the
local population in southeastern Turkey (civil servants, teachers,
health personnel, technical personnel, etc.).

- Assassination of village guardsmen and their families.

- Attacks on and occupation of official missions of Turkey abroad
(diplomatic, consular, commercial, tourism, etc.) as well as
headquarters or branch offices of semi-official institutions (Turkish
Airlines offices, banks, etc.).Attacks and acts of arson against the
houses, business facilities, associations and mosques of the Turkish
community living in western Europe, mainly in Germany. These acts of
terror are mostly carried out through proxies and front organizations
that are permitted by the authorities of the host countries to operate
in those states.

d) Terror within the ranks of the PKK, against informants and
repentant militants. Over the years, Öcalan has ordered the killing of
numerous PKK defectors and potential rivals. In the past decade, the
PKK has conducted assassinations, kidnappings and acts of arson in
Western Europe against former PKK members and defectors.
Assassinations of PKK defectors occurred in Sweden in 1984 and 1985;
in Denmark in 1985; in the Netherlands in 1987 and 1989; in Germany in
1986, 1987, and 1988.

e) Wider hit and run tactics against border posts and military
patrols.

f) Terrorist attacks against industrial infrastructure, oil
facilities, social facilities, and tourist sites with the aim of
weakening the Turkish economy and tarnishing its image. As part of
these terror acts, the PKK bombed passenger trains, ferryboats, and
buses. Several of these attacks resulted in civilian casualties. In
1993 and 1994 it also staged a series of kidnappings of foreigners in
southeastern Turkey to frighten away tourists and to embarrass the
Turkish government.

g) The head of the terrorist organization PKK has advocated and
ordered the use of suicide bombings against Turkish targets that
resulted in the deaths of security personnel and civilians, and
injuries to many more.

Obviously, such an enterprise of crime and violence like the PKK
requires colossal human and financial resources. As there are no
legitimate ways or means to obtain the required resources, PKK's only
option is to resort to illegal and illegitimate methods. Hence, the
PKK is heavily engaged in organized crime activities, including
extortion, drug trafficking, arms smuggling, human smuggling (illegal
immigration), and abduction of children. Such racketeering takes place
particularly in western Europe.

The PKK has been carrying out its activities abroad through its front
organization ERNK (Kurdish acronym for the "Kurdistan National
Liberation Front"), the so-called "Kurdistan Parliament in Exile", its
mouthpiece MED TV, and through other affiliated offices, centers and
associations.

Through these front establishments, the PKK organizes and carries out
its illegal activities. It also uses them to make its propaganda so as
to influence and mislead the public opinion in west European countries
for obtaining popular support to its subversive ends.

The abduction of children and youngsters in some European countries by
these front organizations deserves special mention. According to
police reports and press articles in several west European countries,
the PKK recently organized kidnappings of children, of 14-17 years of
age, in Varmland/Sweden through the ERNK, and in Celle/Germany through
"Kurdish Information Bureaus", or "Kurdish Culture Centers". The
statements of some of the abducted children, as well as press and
police reports reveal that the PKK kidnapped these youngsters, took
them to its camps, located in some other west European countries, and
forced them into training as terrorist militants.

The Turkish authorities spared no effort in drawing the attention of
the west European countries to such criminal and illegal activities of
the PKK, but unfortunately their calls to prevent these activities
usually fell on deaf ears. The complaints of the children's families,
however, attracted the attention of the public and thus created a
strong reaction towards what the PKK and its affiliates have in fact
been doing for years. The police in Sweden and Germany are now
investigating the matter.

Terrorism constitutes today one of the most serious violations of
human rights, in particular the fundamental right to life. By
murdering thousands of people, the PKK has violated the right to life.
Therefore, all the PKK terrorists, including their head Öcalan, must
answer in the court of law for their crimes.

All societies threatened by terrorism have the right to take
appropriate measures to protect themselves from violence and to
eradicate terrorism. Turkey's fight against the PKK terrorism is of
this nature and aims not only to maintain security and to protect its
citizens, but also to pave the way for economic and social development
in the regions where this is needed most. This fight against terrorism
observes democratic principles and the rule of law, with great care
being given to respect the rights of innocent civilians.

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Who is Abdullah Öcalan ?

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Abdullah Öcalan was born in the province of Sanliurfa in 1949. He
speaks Turkish and has only a poor grasp of some Kurdish dialects. He
had a conventional education and his original wish was to be an
officer in the Turkish Army. He failed the entrance examination for
the military academy. He did, however, gain admission in 1971 to the
Ankara University Political Sciences Faculty. There, he joined the
underground movements trying to overthrow Turkey's parliamentary
system. He was expelled from the university for non-attendance and his
illegal activities.

The cell of terrorists which he controlled soon broke links with other
groups. It was known for its use of extreme violence and the "Apocu's"
(Followers of Abdullah Öcalan), as the PKK was called in its early
days, had a special trademark: they hacked off the noses of their
opponents. In the late 1970's, Öcalan collaborated closely with the
Soviet Union and with Syria which were attempting to create political
turmoil in Turkey. In 1980, Öcalan fled to Syria. He began to use
Syrian facilities, including camps in the Bekaa Valley, Lebanese
territory under Syrian control, to train terrorist groups for
cross-border terrorist attacks against targets in Turkey. He started
to inject an ethnic dimension to his terrorist activities, though this
usually had to be imposed on local populations by violent means,
including the kidnapping young men at gun point and then forcing them
to undergo indoctrination and join his movement. In August 1984,
Öcalan's terrorist groups began attacking Turkish police stations and
similar targets in the southeastern provinces north of the border with
Syria and Iraq.

The PKK operates along the familiar lines of traditional communist
parties and carries out terrorist activities under the rigid direction
of its Central Committee. Both its "political" and "military" wings
are controlled directly by Öcalan. As its sole head, Öcalan, has
callously masterminded thousands of PKK's terrorist activities against
Turkey and its people. As such, he has been responsible for thousands
of deaths, kidnappings, mutilations and attacks on innocent people
during his long years as a professional terrorist and murderer.

In October 1998, Turkey warned Syria that it would take action unless
it ceased its support for Öcalan and PKK terrorism. It formally
requested the extradition of Öcalan to Turkey. As a result, Öcalan was
compelled to leave Syria where he had been given shelter for almost
two decades. Furthermore, by an agreement signed between the two
countries on October 20, 1998 in Adana/Turkey, the Syrian Government
for the first time designated the PKK as a terrorist organization, and
pledged not to allow the presence and the activities of the PKK on its
territory. Later, Öcalan was forced to leave Moscow, where he had
escaped from Syria, following political and diplomatic contacts
between Turkey and the Russian Federation.

Öcalan was apprehended in Rome while trying to illegally enter Italy
with a false passport on November 12, 1998. As the British Government
put it, Öcalan's arrest was "a significant advance in the
international community's fight against terrorism."

Öcalan is not only a terrorist but also a common criminal, being
sought by the Turkish courts under charges of homicide and incitement
to homicide. There is thus a red corner bulletin for him issued by the
Interpol. In accordance with a court decision given in 1990, Germany
also had an arrest warrant on Öcalan again for homicide and incitement
to homicide.

All democratic, law-abiding countries as well as international
institutions are obligated to take a consistent and firm stance in
combating terrorism and bringing terrorists to justice. Under
obligations and commitments within the framework of the United
Nations, the Council of Europe, the OSCE, the NATO, and the EU, no
country or government can provide terrorists with safe-haven or evade
its responsibilities in the efforts to eliminate terrorism. Therefore,
Öcalan should never be granted political asylum anywhere and he has to
be extradited to Turkey to face trial for his crimes against Turkish
citizens.

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PKK's Involvement in Organized Crimes

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The PKK engages in organized crimes such as drug trafficking and arms
smuggling, extortion, human smuggling, abduction of children and money
laundering in an attempt to recruit militants and to obtain financial
resources needed to carry out its terrorist activities.

The "Sputnik Operation" conducted in a coordinated fashion in some
European countries in September 1996 exposed PKK's links with
organized crime and money laundering activities.

On the other hand, it is known that the PKK, together with other
organized crime gangs, is also behind the recent wave of illegal
immigration to Italy. PKK's objective is to create international
pressure and antipathy against Turkey.

Moreover, the PKK plays an important role in drug trafficking which
constitutes one of the most evil crimes of our age. The British weekly
magazine "The Spectator" underlined this fact in its 28 November-5
December 1998 issue by saying that "…According to the British security
services sources the PKK is responsible for 40 percent of the heroin
sold in the European Union…" .

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Drug Trafficking and Terrorist Organizations

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All terrorist organizations need to raise funds to sustain their
violent activities and resort to illegal means to finance their
crimes. Drug trafficking comes at the top of this list of illegal
money raising activities, followed by robbery, extortion, kidnapping,
blackmailing and arms smuggling.

In recent years, it has become increasingly evident that terrorism and
drug trafficking are intertwined. The terms "narco-terrorism" and
"narco-terrorists" have started to gain circulation in describing the
link between terrorist organizations and narcotics smugglers. This
fact is illustrated by certain international documents. The UN
Convention Against Illicit Traffic In Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic
Substances (1988) refers to the relationship between illicit drug
traffic and other organized criminal activities which undermine the
stability, security and legitimacy of sovereign states.

Paragraph 5 of the UN International Narcotics Control Board (INCB)'s
1992 report points out that "illicit cultivation of narcotic plants
and illicit trafficking in drugs continue to be a threat to the
political, economic and social stability of several countries. Links
appear to exist between illicit cultivation and drug trafficking and
the activities of subversive organizations in some countries."

The 1993 INCB report draws attention to the organic connections
between drug cartels and terrorist organizations, and also to the
globalization of drug smuggling. The successive INCB reports point out
that these drug cartels concentrate their activities in ethnically and
economically troubled regions of the world. It is no coincidence that
terrorist organizations thrive in the very same regions.

The Vienna Declaration and Program of Action adopted at the World
Conference on Human Rights (25 June 1993) stresses that "the acts,
methods and practices of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations
as well as linkage in some countries to drug trafficking are
activities aimed at the destruction of human rights, fundamental
freedoms and democracy, threatening territorial integrity, security of
states and destabilizing legitimately constituted governments, and the
international community should take the necessary steps to enhance
cooperation to prevent and combat terrorism."

The Final Communiqué of the Council of Europe Pompidou Group 2nd
Pan-European Ministerial Conference (Strasbourg, 4 February 1994)
underlines the fact that "considering the continuous increase in and
the spread of drug trafficking incidents, the involvement of violent
organizations in such activities constitute a serious threat to the
contemporary society" (Art.9), and thus, "it is vital for the security
forces to combat terrorism effectively" (Art.l5).

The UN Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism
adopted at the 49th session of the General Assembly, underlines the
concern by the international community at the growing and dangerous
links between terrorists groups, drug traffickers and their
paramilitary gangs which have resorted to all types of violence, thus
endangering the constitutional order of States and violating basic
human rights. This Declaration also emphasizes the desirability of
closer cooperation and coordination among States in combating crimes
closely connected with terrorism, including drug trafficking, unlawful
arms trade, money laundering and smuggling of nuclear and other
potentially deadly materials.

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Foreign Press Reports

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* In January 1992, the Bremen Police arrested a "Kurd" selling drugs.
The police found a bunch of keys in his pocket, which belonged to an
apartment where "Kurds" lived. Hanging on the walls of the said
apartment were posters of the PKK and its leader Abdullah Öcalan. The
police also found some clues suggesting that the PKK finances its
armed struggle by the heroin trade (SAT-1 TV, 24 Hours, 6 January
1992).

* In 1992, a total number of 2,069 drug addicts died in Germany. In
the same year, the German police apprehended some children aged 10-12,
coming from southeastern Turkey and selling drugs in Hamburg. A child
of 8 carrying a firearm was also arrested. All these children
confessed that the PKK was using them to sell drugs, since they did
not have penal responsibility. The police seized 30 kg. of heroin from
a "Kurd" who was said to have transferred DM 150,000 to his partners.
The estimated figure the PKK earns from the narcotics trade is more
than 56 million DM (VOX TV ; Germany, 12 February 1993).

* In 1993, more than 50 PKK members were arrested by the Essen Police
of Germany. The Federal Criminal Department in Wiesbaden found out
that the PKK was organizing drug trafficking in Germany and the
narcotics trade in Hamburg, Bremen, Frankfurt and Essen was under the
control of the PKK (German Daily "NRZ," 30 March 1993).

* The Hamburg Criminal Police arrested a band of Kurdish drug
smugglers on 15 September 1993. 11-year-old children, who were also
arrested with the other members of the band, later confessed to the
police that the PKK illegally brought them from Turkey to Germany in
order to make them sell drugs for the organization (Hamburg Local TV
Broadcast, 15 September 1993).

* Three years of intensive police investigation by the Slagelse Police
and the Narcotics Section of the National Police Force in Denmark
resulted in the solution of several armed robberies whose spoils were
used to finance narcotics purchases. The police captured a Danish
person, who had links with two Turkish narcotics kingpins living in
Denmark. During the trial the close relationship between these people
and the PKK was proven. The superintendent Niels Bech of the National
Police Force expressed that large parts of the profits from the
narcotics sales in Denmark have returned to Turkey. In one case DDK
140,000 were sent to Turkey and kilos of heroin was sent to Europe in
return (Danish Daily, "Berlingske Tidende," 31 October 1993).

* Two young PKK members (aged 14 and 16) were caught by the police
selling drugs at the Trabrennbahn Train Station near Wandsbeck on 26
September 1994 ("Bild-Hamburg" 28 September 1994).

* On 5-6 October 1994 the "Bild" reported that narcotics were being
distributed from Jork in Alten Land to Northern Germany and that the
Kurdish dealers transferred 15 million DM to their collaborators in
Turkey.

* On 24 October 1994 the German magazine "Focus" wrote that in the
last 9 years 315 PKK members were involved in drug trafficking around
Europe, 154 of whom were captured in Germany.

* Ralf Brottscheller, the Senator of Interior of Bremen, accused the
PKK of extortion and organized narcotics smuggling ("Focus," 18
September 1995).

* In France, the Aulnay Sous Bois Public Security Units and Paris
Bureau of Combating Narcotics Trafficking conducted an operation which
was completed after long and careful preparations of 18 months. 30
people involved in narcotics trafficking on behalf of the PKK and the
Mafia active in France and Belgium were taken into custody after the
operation (French Press, 4 November 1996).

* The Belgian Gendarmerie raided a camp in Zutendaal/Genk, in which
the PKK militants were being trained, and apprehended 35 people,
including children and some internationally wanted criminals
("Arnhemse Courant," 22 November 1996).

* The administrators of a facade company helping the PKK's activities
in France were taken into custody in Paris (French Press, 25 February
1997).

* The "Observatoire Geopolitique Des Drogues" noted in its monthly
report that the biggest heroin seizure in Hungary to date was made on
December 12, 1996, aboard a Turkish bus belonging to the Toros Line
company. The Turkish traffickers, caught with 42 kg. heroin turned out
to be "Kurds." The report mentions the case of a Romanian citizen who,
upon his arrest with 2 kg. heroin by the Turkish police in Edirne in
September 1995, admitted that he was running for the PKK drugs in one
direction and explosives in the other.

The report also notes that 65 percent of the drugs confiscated by the
Romanian customs officers are found on passenger vehicles and that
"every time Romanian police make a drug haul at a Turkish company,
Kurds are involved" ("The Geopolitical Drug Dispatch", No. 65, March
1997).

* A high level member of the PKK, known as the PKK chief in the
Hannover area, was arrested in Berlin. He had been wanted by the
German police on charges of arson attacks, and damage to private
property. The police found out evidence regarding the PKK's
involvement in illicit labor trafficking ("Berliner Zeitung" 4 April
1997).

* 20 refugees were arrested in a police raid on a refugee hostel which
was discovered to be a PKK base, in Grimma, Bahren. The operation was
conducted jointly by the German police and experts from the Federal
Criminal Department. The police confiscated various fire arms,
thousands of DM and receipts. These immigrants were actively involved
in the activities of the PKK and its facade branches (German Press, 4
April 1997).

* The Bavarian police conducted a series of operations against the PKK
militants in refugee camps, arrested 2, and took into custody 17 of
them (Statement by Straubing Police Directorate dated 17 June 1997).

* The PKK transfers people, weapons and drugs through the FRY (Former
Republic of Yugoslavia) and purchases weapons in return (Croatian
daily "Vjesnik" August 1997).

* The "Focus" magazine remarked on 23 March 1998 that members of the
PKK invested the money laundered from drug trafficking and extortion
in the real estate market in Celle, Germany.

* On August 1, 1998, the Croatian and Slovenian security forces
jointly confiscated 38 kg. of heroin in a vehicle bound for western
Europe. According to the Croatian reports, the shipment of the heroin
was realized by Turkish citizens "who are most probably members of the
PKK" This is consistent with the statements made by Slovenian security
forces who have pointed to a "reasonable suspicion" that a member of
the PKK is involved in the smuggling (Croatian and Slovenian press
reviews, 6 August 1998).

* Four "Kurdish" people were captured with 2.6 kg. heroin, the largest
amount of narcotics ever captured in west Norway. It is thought that
the four people caught were merely couriers and that the trafficking
was carried out by a "Turkish/Kurdish" network (Bergen, 7 August
1998).

* "…The PKK has financed its war against Turkey by extortion and the
sale of heroin, and according to British security service sources it
is responsible for 40 percent of the heroin sold in the European
Union…" (British weekly magazine "The Spectator", 28 November-5
December 1998 issue).


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Reports of Foreign Police and Foreign Officials

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* In January 1990, a PKK member was arrested in Switzerland for
selling drugs on behalf of the PKK. In the same month a 13-year-old
person, also linked to the PKK, was captured in the Netherlands and
was released as being too young to prosecute.

* A Turkish citizen of Kurdish origin, apprehended in France on 22
January 1991, confessed that he had been trading drugs in France on
behalf of the PKK and that the drugs were transported by trucks or
sometimes by tourist vehicles and then distributed to different cities
not only in France but in various other countries in Europe as well.

* After being arrested on 7 March 1991 in France, a "Kurdish" person
confessed that the drugs he was selling belonged to the PKK.

* Another Turkish citizen of "Kurdish" descent, captured with 48 kg.
of heroin in Arnheim in November 1991, was found out to be a PKK
member.

* The German Police reports underline the fact that l,103 kg. of
heroin was seized by the police in 1991 and 400 of 735 suspects
involved in the drug trading incidents were PKK members. This ratio
mounted to 450/735 in 1992 and 300/457 in 1993.

* The US Department of State Bureau of International Narcotics Matters
expressed in its International Narcotics Control Strategy Report
(1992) that the two-thirds of the people involved in drug trafficking
incidents in Europe are PKK-oriented.

* An active PKK member working as a truck driver, who was known to
have stood as a candidate in Bonn in the 1992 elections for the PKK's
so-called National Assembly, was seized in Troisdorf, Germany, while
transporting substantial amounts of drugs.

* In 1993, the police seized 200 kg. of heroin in London. Further
investigation revealed that the drug traders were working for the PKK.

* A police operation in Offenbach, Germany on 7 January 1993, led to
the seizure of 5 kilos of heroin. Among the seven people captured by
the police was a person known as the "PKK's accountant."

* As a consequence of the operations conducted by the German police in
Hamburg, Bremen and Bad Bramstad during May-October 1993, 15.7 kg. of
heroin was confiscated and 22 people were apprehended, including PKK
members and supporters. The criminals turned out to have requested
political asylum from the German authorities.

* 15 Turkish citizens with "Kurdish" descent were arrested in
connection with 1.6 kg. heroin seized by the German police in
Recklinghausen, Germany, on 27 October 1993. Among those were the
participants at pro-PKK demonstrations in Turkey.

* A message by the German Interpol dated October 26, 1993, pointed out
that six Turkish citizens with Kurdish origin were arrested on charges
of laundering the proceeds from drug trafficking in the Netherlands,
Spain, Italy and Germany. Large sums of cash, thought to be laundered
money, were captured by the German police.

* Another Turkish citizen of "Kurdish" origin, captured in Caracas,
Venezuela on 10 November 1993, while carrying 3.5 kg. of cocaine,
confessed that she was a PKK courier. This incident is said to prove
the links of the PKK with the drug cartels even in Latin America.

* The NCIS estimated that the 44 percent of 1993 budget of the PKK as
430 million French Francs, came from illicit drug trafficking.

* During a six-week campaign initiated by the Stuttgart city police in
January 1994, 76 people were apprehended, including some who had been
formerly prosecuted in Turkey because of their links with the
terrorist organization.

* On 17 August 1994 the German Criminal Authority informed the Turkish
Security Authorities that a political refugee, resident in Kiel, was
engaged in drug trade and money transfer to the PKK.

* The US Deputy Secretary of State in charge of narcotics, Ambassador
Robert Felbard, answering a question at a press briefing in February
1994 regarding the PKK supervision of drug trafficking in Europe and
the United States, stated that the US had quite a bit of information
about the PKK's involvement in the trafficking of heroin into Europe.

* The Amsterdam police, during an anti-drug operation on 11 December
1994, seized numerous firearms, machine guns, bombs and PKK documents
and arrested several PKK militants.

* The Bavarian Minister of Interior, Günter Beckstein, referring to
the 30 PKK militants captured in Europe during the last two years,
stated that the PKK has taken control of the European narcotics market
(Turkish daily, "Cumhuriyet," 31 July 1995).

* The Director of German Terrorism Research Forum, Rolp Tophoven, has
stated that a large majority of the people arrested on charges of
narcotics smuggling are of "Kurdish" descent, many of whom confess
committing the crime on behalf of the terrorist PKK (Turkish daily,
"Yeni Yüzy›l," 12 November 1995).

* Olivier Foll, another expert on international terrorism, noted that
the PKK members, when apprehended for illegal possession of narcotics,
confess to smuggling drugs for the PKK and exploit the "political"
dimension of the issue as an excuse for their crimes. Mr. Foll
criticized the "Kurdish" policies of some European statesmen who grant
concessions to the PKK (Turkish daily "Yeni Yüzy›l," 12 November
1995).

* During the Sputnik operation of September 18, 1996, the Belgian
police seized 350 million Belgian Francs that were thought to have
been the proceeds from narcotics trafficking. Seven people having ties
with the PKK were apprehended in connection with the crime. The
Sputnik operation also revealed that the MED-TV, the mouthpiece of the
PKK, is involved in PKK's money laundering activities. The MED-TV
representative in Germany was taken into custody as he was unable to
explain the source of the 500 million BF, used in financing the
station. It was later found that he was using revenues from drug
trafficking for financing not only the MED-TV but also the so-called
"Kurdistan Parliament in Exile" (KPE). The Belgian police seized many
firearms in the KPE building they searched.

* In August 1997, the German police conducted a comprehensive
operation against the PKK members in Cologne in which six members of
the PKK were arrested. After the operation, Cologne police officers
issued a statement emphsizing the fact that the PKK is involved in
organized crime including extortion in Germany to finance its acts of
terrorism.

* The Göttingen police of Germany, after a 14-month investigation,
managed to penetrate the drug smuggling network with two "Kurdish"
informers in May 1998 and found out that the revenues from 40 kg. of
heroin marketed were channeled to the PKK.

* The KDP (The Kurdistan Democratic Party of Masud Barzani) forces
discovered extensive narcotics farms in the Gali Pes Agha region of
northern Iraq, captured from the PKK in May 1997.

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Turkish Police Reports

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* A PKK member, captured by the police with 14.5 kg. of heroin on 1
September 1993, confessed that he was acting on behalf of the PKK
abroad, and that he was a drug-smuggler, transferring 30 percent of
the proceeds to the terrorist organization.

* Following the confiscation of 20.3 kg. of heroin in Duisburg,
Germany, two PKK supporters were arrested by the German police. This
triggered a police investigation in Turkey, which led to the seizure
of firearms and munitions in a vehicle owned by the same family in the
city of Mersin on 12 May 1993.

* A PKK militant of Iranian origin confessed that the terrorist
organization has drug production facilities in Iran and that Osman
Öcalan (the brother of Abdullah Öcalan and a leading figure of the
terrorist organization PKK) is in charge of the production of
narcotics which are later marketed mainly in Europe to raise money for
the organization.

* Two PKK militants, arrested with 30 kg. of heroin, expressed that
they were aiming to sell the drugs to provide financial contributions
to the PKK.

* The Turkish Security Forces seized 120 kg. of heroin and 40 kg. of
hemp seeds (cannabis) in a PKK shelter in southeastern Turkey.

* One PKK member, who was put in jail on 3 July 1993 for getting
involved in the terrorist acts of the PKK in Hakkari and released on
20 October 1993, was captured with 36 kg. of heroine, 140 kg. of
precursors and some other drug-producing material.

* Another member of the PKK, sentenced to 6 years of imprisonment,
confessed that he was in charge of establishing the links between the
drug smugglers and the terrorist organization.

* During the operations conducted by the Turkish security forces, two
people, captured with 48 kg. of hashish, were arrested as they were
found out to be involved in narco-trade so as to provide financial
support to the PKK.

* Another Turkish citizen said to be of "Kurdish-origin", caught by
the police in possession of 117 kilos of hashish in Istanbul, was
later found to have participated in the PKK-led attack on the Turkish
Consulate General in Frankfurt on March 1l, 1992.

* One Turkish citizen of "Kurdish-origin" apprehended in July 1994
confessed that he was involved in drug trafficking to raise money for
the PKK. The police, making use of the information he disclosed, were
able to arrest some other members of the terrorist organization.

* On 1 August 1994 a PKK member, apprehended in Diyarbak›r with 2 kg.
of heroin, acknowledged that he was selling drugs for the PKK. He also
informed the police that some PKK members were cultivating drugs and
gave the names of the places where hemp seeds (cannabis) were grown.
In further investigation the police captured 120,000 roots of hemp
seeds in a village named Dibek.

* On 21 August 1994 the Turkish security forces apprehended two people
with 150 kg. of hashish and considerable amounts of hemp seeds and
hashish growing material. The security forces also captured PKK
documents and propaganda material and two machine guns.

* Diyarbak›r Police, conducting an operation against the PKK on 17
July 1994, apprehended three people with 80 kg. of hashish, PKK
documents, a gun and three ERNK seals. These people confessed that the
PKK ordered them to sell the drugs and purchase firearms and food
supplies for the organization. The said people turned out to have
participated in various terror acts such as the rocket attack to and
storming of a police residence in Lice on 29 June, the bomb attack on
the residence of a judge in Diyarbak›r on 16 January 1994, and a bomb
attack on a police patrol car.

* Seven people captured in the city of Cizre on 23 March 1994 with
398.5 kilos of heroin confessed to smuggling narcotics on behalf of
the PKK.

* The security forces have had strong evidence suggesting that a
network composed of PKK militants is involved in drug trading in Zaho,
northern Iraq. The network is known to hand the drugs over to clients
either in Zaho or in Turkey. Therefore, it was not very surprising
that during the operation by the Turkish Armed Forces in northern Iraq
against the PKK, the Turkish army discovered a large farm where the
terrorists cultivated hemp (cannabis). The farm was located near the
PKK's Pirvela Camp in the Bahara valley. The Turkish military officers
announced that the amount of drugs captured during the operation in
northern Iraq reached 4.5 tons.

* In a raid on 7 March 1995 on the residence of a person, suspected by
the police of having contact with the PKK militants, the Turkish
police seized large amounts of drugs, drug precursor chemicals,
firearms and ammunitions.

* Three of the seven people caught with 21.5 kilos of heroin in
Hamburg, Germany, have been found out to have been formerly arrested
in Turkey on charges of PKK membership.

* The two people caught by the police with 20.6 kilos of narcotics in
‹zmir on August 5, 1996, have been found out to be running an
association linked to the PKK in the Netherlands.

* Another PKK sympathizer, who was captured with acetic anhydride, a
heroin precursor chemical, by the Turkish security forces in the city
of Van on March 24, 1998, was found to have been previously arrested
for providing logistic support to the PKK.

* The Turkish security forces have strong evidence that the PKK
militants, settled in the Iranian part of our common border, receive
commissions from the narcotics smugglers called "taxes or donations."


***


The role of the PKK in incidents given above is undeniable, both
because of the documents seized by the security forces and the
backgrounds of the arrested people. Still, in certain Western
countries, the activities of this terrorist organization, are
regrettably being tolerated.

After the prohibition of PKK in France and Germany towards the end of
1993, a wave of optimism emerged in Turkish public opinion that the
rest of the European countries would follow suit by adopting similar
measures. This, however, has not happened to date. Yet, it is clear
that the prohibition of the PKK and its front organizations in
European countries would also be in the interest of these countries.
The PKK is responsible for narcotics trafficking, extortion, robbery,
and illicit arms and human smuggling activities, and thus circumvent
the rule of law and compromises the security and stability of the
countries in which it operates. It is no coincidence that drug
trafficking cases predominantly occur in those countries where the
organization of the PKK is extensive and tolerated.


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Is There A "Kurdish Question" in Turkey?

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As the first melting pot and encounter point of many different
civilizations and cultures, present-day Turkey contains a multitude of
ethnic, religious and cultural elements. Turkey is proud of its great
heritage. This centuries-long shared way of life is perfectly
second-nature for the people of Turkey.

Yet, different ethnic identities, including the Kurdish, are
acknowledged and accepted in Turkey. The state does not categorize its
citizens along ethnic lines nor does it impose an ethnic identity on
them. Population censuses in Turkey never count people on the basis of
their ethnic origins. But, this does not prevent an individual citizen
to identify himself or herself in terms of a specific ethnic category.
That is a private affair and ultimately a matter of personal
preference. Public expressions and manifestations of ethnic identity
are prohibited neither by law nor by social custom. Folklore is rich
and colorful and local variations, customs and traditions are
protected and supported.

Turkey is a constitutional state governed by the rule of law.
Democracy rests on a parliamentary system of government, respect for
human rights and on the supremacy of law. Multi-party politics, free
elections, a growing tradition of local government mark the democratic
way of life in Turkey.

Constitutional citizenship is one of the principles upon which the
Turkish state was founded. The Turkish Constitution stipulates that
the State and the Nation are indivisible, and that all citizens
irrespective of their ethnic, racial or religious origin, are equal
before the law.

For historical and cultural reasons, and under stipulations of binding
international treaties, the concept of "minority" applies specifically
to certain groups of non-Moslem citizens. In fact, the social fabric
of Turkey is a unique real life case of the OSCE principle that "not
all ethnic, cultural, linguistic or religious differences necessarily
lead to the creation of national minorities". Our citizens of Kurdish
ethnic origin are not discriminated against and they feel themselves
to be equal members of the society. Many have risen to the highest
positions in the Republic. They share the same opportunities and the
same destiny as the rest of the population.

Ethnicity is not a factor in the political geography of Turkey. That
is, the predominant majority of the Turkish citizens of Kurdish
descent live in western Turkey, with the greatest concentration being
in Istanbul. Even in eastern and southeastern Turkey, the Turkish
citizens of Kurdish ethnic origin do not constitute a majority. The
unitary structure of the State reflects the equality and togetherness
of different geographic regions of Turkey.

Therefore, it is simply neither understandable nor acceptable for
Turkey to discuss "the respect for social, economic and legitimate
political aspirations of Kurds" as if the Turkish citizens of Kurdish
ethnic descent constitute a different and separate community. They are
citizens of a nation that has been sharing for centuries the same
values with respect to language, religion, culture and patriotic
identity, common history and the will for a mutual future.

It is of cardinal importance to differentiate between a militant
organization, which resorts systematically to terrorism as well as all
kinds of organized crime, and the phenomenon of Kurdish ethnicity. It
is evident that our citizens of Kurdish ethnic origin are law-abiding
people. Most of them live in western Turkey, drawn by economic
attraction. They are of their own choice integrated into the society
and its economic, social and cultural aspects. In Turkey, citizens of
all ethnic origins can rise to the highest political positions and
ranks such as cabinet ministers and members of parliament. Throughout
the centuries, much mixing has taken place through intermarriages.
Progress in industrial, cultural and social fields, as well as
urbanization, has also contributed to the voluntary and natural
process of integration.

The population in southeast Anatolia, like our citizens in other
regions of the country, participate fully in the political life of
Turkey; they freely make their voices heard in local administrations,
in the municipalities, the Parliament, and the central government
through elected representatives. It is nothing out of the ordinary for
the individuals of different ethnic origins to participate in the
political life of the country. Even the most militant circles concede
the fact that there are no obstacles to social mobility of individuals
from different ethnic origins to any profession or career, whether
public or private.

The fundamental rights and freedoms of all Turkish citizens are
secured by the relevant provisions of the Constitution. However, those
rights have been threatened by the PKK, creating terror among the
populace.

None of our citizens of Kurdish ethnic origin, notwithstanding
allegations to the contrary, who publicly or politically asserts
his/her Kurdish ethnic identity risks harassment or persecution.
However, acts or statements made against the "territorial integrity"
of Turkey are subject to legal prosecution under the law. If these
allegations were true, none of the publications in Kurdish whose
contents are full of assertions of Kurdish ethnic identity would have
been tolerated by the authorities.

In the same vein, Turkey is often accused of refusing to negotiate
with the terrorist organization PKK. These accusations contradict the
fundamental rules of international law. Negotiating with a terrorist
organization, responsible for thousands of murders, would be
tantamount to justifying and encouraging terrorism.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------





http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk12.htm



Is the Use of Kurdish Banned in Turkey ?

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Contrary to the allegations of some biased quarters, there is no
restriction on the use of languages in Turkey. Presently, there are
many private radio-TV stations broadcasting and numerous books and
journals published both in Turkish and in various dialects of
"Kurdish" throughout the country. It should be mentioned here that
"Kurdish" can be hardly depicted as "a single language" linguistically
or socially. Many scholars point out the fact that there are many
different local languages and dialects used in southeastern Turkey
such as Zaza and Kirmanchi which are only as close to each other as
French and English. These local languages and dialects are so
dissimilar that people living in one village cannot even communicate
with others from a neighboring village. As a result, Turkish has
become the sole medium of communication in the region. It is ironic
that Turkish is also used in PKK's militant training camps and in the
communication between its headquarters and terrorists as their common
language.

The official language of the Republic of Turkey is Turkish, but
Armenian, Ladino, Greek, the different dialects of "Kurdish", etc. are
spoken freely in daily life. There is only one official language in
the country. However, in this respect Turkey does not constitute a
unique and exceptional case either in Europe or among other democratic
countries.

It should also be underlined that expressions of ethnic identity such
as the use of local languages are viewed as private domain matters.
Thus, they are not the subject of law and are therefore not regulated
by the state. The Turkish language is the language of the Republic of
Turkey and is consequently the only formal language of education and
instruction. The same is true in most democracies. Though it is
possible to help promote them, it is neither realistic nor feasible to
make local tongues official languages of the State.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------





http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk13.htm


Socio-Economic Development of Southeastern Turkey and the
Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Atatürk Dam is the largest component of the Southeastern Anatolia
Project (GAP).

The Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP), consisting of a complex
system of dams, waterworks, irrigation and hydraulic energy network is
a colossal investment of Turkey, the biggest regional initiative ever
attempted in Turkey. It aims at changing the whole complexion of the
arid geography and consequently, the social and economic backwardness
of southeastern Anatolia. The Turkish Government has always believed
that one of the best tools in the struggle against terrorism is
economic development. It is no accident that the region in which the
PKK operates is also the least economically developed part of Turkey.
The Turkish Government is determined to rectify that.

It is a fact that there are socio-economic regional imbalances in
Turkey as in every developing, even some developed countries. Rough
geographic and climatic conditions of southeastern Turkey are the main
factors in this imbalance. Terrorism and economic backwardness of the
region affect all our citizens indiscriminately. Despite many
governmental incentives and low taxation policies, the private sector
had in the past been reluctant to invest in the region, mainly due to
security concerns. Public sector has taken the place of the private
sector and many investments have already been realized by the State.
"GAP" is the best example of that. Government investment in this
region is much higher than the amount of taxes collected there. "GAP"
is a gigantic economic step forward which will change the destiny of
the region. Agricultural production of Turkey will rise by several
folds when this project, which is both energy and irrigation oriented,
is completed. Yet, its important impact is not expected only on
agricultural production, but also on industry, construction, services,
as well as on the Gross Regional Product and employment. When the
project is completed, per capita income will increase three times, and
3.3 million jobs will be created.

The Southeastern Anatolia Project constitutes an integrated project
which contributes significantly to the realization of national targets
for the utilization of development potentials, self-induced economic
growth, social stability and enhancement of export possibilities, and
at the same time aims at the promotion of the principle of sustainable
human development; thus, human development is the core of sustainable
development in the "GAP" region. In this context, the "GAP Social
Action Plan" consists of the basic policies, targets, strategies and
implementation measures for ensuring the social development of the
region through a human-centered approach emphasizing sustainability of
the development. This people-centered development aims to remove the
gap between the project area and the more developed regions in Turkey
and to promote equitable development.

This ambitious socio-economic development drive also explains why the
PKK has been targeting civilians as well as economic and social
projects. PKK's aim is both to terrorize the local population and to
keep the region economically and socially backward so as to recruit
more militants into its own ranks. However, this is being reversed as
the GAP began to bear its fruits. For example, although the so-called
head of the PKK is from ?anl›urfa, there has never been a terrorist
act there, because it is an economically powerful settlement. The
state of emergency still has to continue in some of the provinces of
southeastern Turkey. It is the direct consequence and explicit proof
of the PKK terrorism in the region. It is of utmost importance for
Turkey to augment the allocation of human and financial resources for
the socio-economic development of this region. The precondition to
achieve this task is the eradication of the PKK terrorist
organization.

Eradication of terrorism will not only put an end to the deliberate
devastation by terrorists of the underdeveloped regions of Turkey, but
also release important resources for developmental activity in those
very regions. While terrorism might be viewed as a consequence of
certain underlying causes, it is also incontestably true that
terrorism is itself the main reason of poverty and underdevelopment of
those areas where it is perpetrated.

In sum, our citizens of all ethnic origins -Turkish, Kurdish and
others- living together for more than ten centuries in Turkey have
created a society of patriotic citizens sharing common values. They
established their own nation-state, the Turkish Republic, following
the War of Independence. Ethnic descent is not considered a cause of
discrimination or privilege just as in all modern nation States on the
globe.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ali Asker
2004-10-26 21:16:33 UTC
Permalink
Two-part Circulation

The body's circulation has two parts, with the heart acting as a
double pump. Blood from the right side pump is dark red (bluish) and
low in oxygen. It travels along pulmonary arteries to the lungs where
it receives fresh supplies of oxygen and becomes bright red. It flows
along pulmonary veins back to the heart's left side pump.
Post by mark rivers
Post by Ali Asker
You are still making the same mistake in one line you wrote;
+++++++++++++++++
Subject: Re: Kuwerdish contribution to Oscar 2005
This is the only article in this thread
View: Original Format
Newsgroups: soc.culture.iranian, soc.culture.kurdish,
soc.culture.turkish, soc.culture.iraq
Date: 2004-10-02 04:55:12 PST
We are the TERRORISTS...
We will divide Iran, Turkey, Syria and Iraq in to the pieces until
ever single individual is free from thought control, torture and
brain-washing! Every nation should have their own land where they can
practice their own culture. Iran has consist of about 20 some
different nations and we will tore them in to 20 different countries
and give mollahs a small land where they can practice their barbaric
religion to themselves and only harm temselves.
WE WILL BREAK IRAN IN TO THE PIECES!!! "
+++++++++++++=
This son-of-a-bitch is a terrorist, a raper, torturer and killer of
innocent and defeseless people to advance the imperialistic aims of
his/her terrorist organization, PKK/KADEK terrorist oranization; has
no right to say anything except to sit by his lawyer in the court of
law to hear his sentense announced for the crimes he/she committed.
organization, a full-time, professional and unconditional hater and
murderer of innocent citizens of the Democratic Republic of Turkey,
posts an anti-Turkish hate propaganda fabricated by mouth-pieces of
the same PKK/KADEK terrorist organization which, with the support of
the enemies of Turkey (Syria, Belgium, Sweden, Netherlands,
Switzerland, Denmark, France, Greece and others) and with the income
it obtained from major illegal drug trafficking to Europe, robberies,
extortions, etc. murdered nearly 40 thousands innocent human beings in
Turkey and ruined the health and property of many thousands of others
to destroy democratic goverment of the Republic of Turkey and
establish a marxist, lennist, communist PKK/KADEK dictatorship in
South East Turkey.This is against the laws of all countries in the
World including Turkey. Any country, as well as Turkey, will defend
itself against such terrorism as a most legitimate and legal right.
To hell with you all PKK/KADEK terrorists !!!!!
PKK/KADEK is not a democratically elected represantative of Kurdish
citizens of Turkey. Democratically elected represantatives of the
citizens of Turkey of Kurdish descend are in the goverment as MPs,
ministers, PMs, presidents, judges, etc., certainly not as terrorists
murdering innocent human beings. Plus, all citizens of Turkey of
Kurdish descend, like everybody else, are serving their country as
soldiers, officers and generals in the military, police officers,
lawyers and judges in the law enforcement organizations, pursuing
their lives as business man and woman, professional careers in the
private business and goverment institutions. And, none of them feel
they have to murder innocent human beings "to defend themselves". All
citizen of Turkey, regardless of race, language, religion, gender,
etc., have their undeniable right and freedom under the law to defend
their rights and freedoms, pursue solutions for the problems they
think they have by only legal, peacefull and democratic ways and
means, definitely not "whatever means is possible" and certainly not
by terrorism.
http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk3.htm
What is the PKK/KADEK ?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The PKK (Kurdish acronym for the "Kurdistan Workers' Party"), formed
in 1978 by Abdullah Öcalan, is the most notorious terror organization
in the world. It has been waging a vicious campaign of terror against
Turkey since 1984 with the external support of certain states and
circles whose aim is to destabilize Turkey.
The PKK was identified as one of the 30 main terrorist organizations
in the world by the US Secretary of State in October 1997, and it was
also described in the same way in US State Department "Patterns of
Global Terrorism" reports.
PKK's terrorist activities have resulted, to date, in the death of
thousands of people, including women, the elderly, children and in
many instances even infants. The PKK has also murdered over one
hundred school teachers, who became inevitable targets of the
terrorists since it was judged that PKK's subversive views could be
most easily imposed on the uneducated and the ignorant. Lists giving
the figures of ordinary individuals and public servants, ruthlessly
killed or maimed by the PKK terrorists, are in annex.
The PKK has employed murder, intimidation, kidnapping and destruction
to achieve its nefarious objectives. It targets ordinary people,
because it aims to subjugate the local population in southeastern
Turkey into supporting its evil deeds. The PKK has attacked the entire
inhabitants of villages in southeast Anatolia. These attacks are also
designed to make the region uninhabitable. The PKK destroys schools,
sets forests on fire, blows up railways and bridges, plants mines on
roads, burns down construction machinery, and demolishes health
centers. A list containing the figures of material damage caused by
PKK's terrorist attacks is also in annex.
In response, the authorities trained the villagers to defend
themselves and also moved some people to locations where they would be
safer. These two measures, intended to protect the local population
against terrorism, have been at the center of a misinformation
campaign by the PKK and its sympathizers.
The PKK indiscriminately murders the very people on whose behalf it
purports to act : Turkish citizens of Kurdish origin. Ironically, the
PKK regards Masud Barzani's Kurdish Democratic Party and Jalal
Talabani's Patriotic Union of Kurdistan, the two main Kurdish
groupings in northern Iraq, as its adversaries.
Due to its ability to strike Turkey from Syria and (after the 1991
Gulf War) northern Iraq, the PKK proved for some time a serious threat
to law and order and claimed many victims. Following its operations
against PKK facilities in northern Iraq Turkey restored law and order
throughout the southeastern provinces.
The PKK has been supported and sheltered by some of Turkey's
neighbors, as well as by some others outside the region. Syria and
Greece are the principal countries that have been supporting the PKK
for years. However, with the signing of Adana memorandum on October
20, 1998, the Syrian connection has been broken. Syrian authorities
have promised not to support terrorist activities against Turkey and
taken some steps in this direction. Turkey closely monitors Syrian
compliance with the Adana agreement. Yet, Greece, a NATO ally, backs
the PKK and its affiliates by every means at its disposal. Confessions
and testimonies of dozens of PKK militants arrested in Turkey reveal
that Greek support to PKK terrorism goes much beyond than what was
generally estimated. Most recently, revelations made by the PKK member
Fethi Demir and by ?emdin Sak?k, PKK's "second man" captured in
northern Iraq, have helped to confirm concretely the continuing Greek
support to the PKK. The statement made by Greek Premier Simitis on
November 26, 1998, leaves no room for doubt about the position of
Greece vis-a-vis the PKK : "the PKK is an organization fighting for
the rights of the Kurdish minority and using various means to reach
this end." Can there be a more explicit approval of PKK terrorism?
There is of course other evidence and documentation concerning Greek
support to PKK terrorism.
The PKK terrorist organization, among others, employs the following
a) Indiscriminate terror against the Turkish citizens of Kurdish
ethnic origin mainly in southeastern Turkey. Targets included
children, women, and the elderly. In some places PKK terrorists have
wiped out isolated, dispersed settlements and hamlets.
The aim is to force the local population into submission, to make them
provide sanctuary.
b) Indiscriminate terror against non-Kurdish population. The purpose
is to discredit the state institutions and to cause instability.
c) Terror against selected targets.
- Assassination of well known personalities, judicial, law enforcement
and security personnel.
- Assassination of state functionaries that provide services to the
local population in southeastern Turkey (civil servants, teachers,
health personnel, technical personnel, etc.).
- Assassination of village guardsmen and their families.
- Attacks on and occupation of official missions of Turkey abroad
(diplomatic, consular, commercial, tourism, etc.) as well as
headquarters or branch offices of semi-official institutions (Turkish
Airlines offices, banks, etc.).Attacks and acts of arson against the
houses, business facilities, associations and mosques of the Turkish
community living in western Europe, mainly in Germany. These acts of
terror are mostly carried out through proxies and front organizations
that are permitted by the authorities of the host countries to operate
in those states.
d) Terror within the ranks of the PKK, against informants and
repentant militants. Over the years, Öcalan has ordered the killing of
numerous PKK defectors and potential rivals. In the past decade, the
PKK has conducted assassinations, kidnappings and acts of arson in
Western Europe against former PKK members and defectors.
Assassinations of PKK defectors occurred in Sweden in 1984 and 1985;
in Denmark in 1985; in the Netherlands in 1987 and 1989; in Germany in
1986, 1987, and 1988.
e) Wider hit and run tactics against border posts and military
patrols.
f) Terrorist attacks against industrial infrastructure, oil
facilities, social facilities, and tourist sites with the aim of
weakening the Turkish economy and tarnishing its image. As part of
these terror acts, the PKK bombed passenger trains, ferryboats, and
buses. Several of these attacks resulted in civilian casualties. In
1993 and 1994 it also staged a series of kidnappings of foreigners in
southeastern Turkey to frighten away tourists and to embarrass the
Turkish government.
g) The head of the terrorist organization PKK has advocated and
ordered the use of suicide bombings against Turkish targets that
resulted in the deaths of security personnel and civilians, and
injuries to many more.
Obviously, such an enterprise of crime and violence like the PKK
requires colossal human and financial resources. As there are no
legitimate ways or means to obtain the required resources, PKK's only
option is to resort to illegal and illegitimate methods. Hence, the
PKK is heavily engaged in organized crime activities, including
extortion, drug trafficking, arms smuggling, human smuggling (illegal
immigration), and abduction of children. Such racketeering takes place
particularly in western Europe.
The PKK has been carrying out its activities abroad through its front
organization ERNK (Kurdish acronym for the "Kurdistan National
Liberation Front"), the so-called "Kurdistan Parliament in Exile", its
mouthpiece MED TV, and through other affiliated offices, centers and
associations.
Through these front establishments, the PKK organizes and carries out
its illegal activities. It also uses them to make its propaganda so as
to influence and mislead the public opinion in west European countries
for obtaining popular support to its subversive ends.
The abduction of children and youngsters in some European countries by
these front organizations deserves special mention. According to
police reports and press articles in several west European countries,
the PKK recently organized kidnappings of children, of 14-17 years of
age, in Varmland/Sweden through the ERNK, and in Celle/Germany through
"Kurdish Information Bureaus", or "Kurdish Culture Centers". The
statements of some of the abducted children, as well as press and
police reports reveal that the PKK kidnapped these youngsters, took
them to its camps, located in some other west European countries, and
forced them into training as terrorist militants.
The Turkish authorities spared no effort in drawing the attention of
the west European countries to such criminal and illegal activities of
the PKK, but unfortunately their calls to prevent these activities
usually fell on deaf ears. The complaints of the children's families,
however, attracted the attention of the public and thus created a
strong reaction towards what the PKK and its affiliates have in fact
been doing for years. The police in Sweden and Germany are now
investigating the matter.
Terrorism constitutes today one of the most serious violations of
human rights, in particular the fundamental right to life. By
murdering thousands of people, the PKK has violated the right to life.
Therefore, all the PKK terrorists, including their head Öcalan, must
answer in the court of law for their crimes.
All societies threatened by terrorism have the right to take
appropriate measures to protect themselves from violence and to
eradicate terrorism. Turkey's fight against the PKK terrorism is of
this nature and aims not only to maintain security and to protect its
citizens, but also to pave the way for economic and social development
in the regions where this is needed most. This fight against terrorism
observes democratic principles and the rule of law, with great care
being given to respect the rights of innocent civilians.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk4.htm
Who is Abdullah Öcalan ?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Abdullah Öcalan was born in the province of Sanliurfa in 1949. He
speaks Turkish and has only a poor grasp of some Kurdish dialects. He
had a conventional education and his original wish was to be an
officer in the Turkish Army. He failed the entrance examination for
the military academy. He did, however, gain admission in 1971 to the
Ankara University Political Sciences Faculty. There, he joined the
underground movements trying to overthrow Turkey's parliamentary
system. He was expelled from the university for non-attendance and his
illegal activities.
The cell of terrorists which he controlled soon broke links with other
groups. It was known for its use of extreme violence and the "Apocu's"
(Followers of Abdullah Öcalan), as the PKK was called in its early
days, had a special trademark: they hacked off the noses of their
opponents. In the late 1970's, Öcalan collaborated closely with the
Soviet Union and with Syria which were attempting to create political
turmoil in Turkey. In 1980, Öcalan fled to Syria. He began to use
Syrian facilities, including camps in the Bekaa Valley, Lebanese
territory under Syrian control, to train terrorist groups for
cross-border terrorist attacks against targets in Turkey. He started
to inject an ethnic dimension to his terrorist activities, though this
usually had to be imposed on local populations by violent means,
including the kidnapping young men at gun point and then forcing them
to undergo indoctrination and join his movement. In August 1984,
Öcalan's terrorist groups began attacking Turkish police stations and
similar targets in the southeastern provinces north of the border with
Syria and Iraq.
The PKK operates along the familiar lines of traditional communist
parties and carries out terrorist activities under the rigid direction
of its Central Committee. Both its "political" and "military" wings
are controlled directly by Öcalan. As its sole head, Öcalan, has
callously masterminded thousands of PKK's terrorist activities against
Turkey and its people. As such, he has been responsible for thousands
of deaths, kidnappings, mutilations and attacks on innocent people
during his long years as a professional terrorist and murderer.
In October 1998, Turkey warned Syria that it would take action unless
it ceased its support for Öcalan and PKK terrorism. It formally
requested the extradition of Öcalan to Turkey. As a result, Öcalan was
compelled to leave Syria where he had been given shelter for almost
two decades. Furthermore, by an agreement signed between the two
countries on October 20, 1998 in Adana/Turkey, the Syrian Government
for the first time designated the PKK as a terrorist organization, and
pledged not to allow the presence and the activities of the PKK on its
territory. Later, Öcalan was forced to leave Moscow, where he had
escaped from Syria, following political and diplomatic contacts
between Turkey and the Russian Federation.
Öcalan was apprehended in Rome while trying to illegally enter Italy
with a false passport on November 12, 1998. As the British Government
put it, Öcalan's arrest was "a significant advance in the
international community's fight against terrorism."
Öcalan is not only a terrorist but also a common criminal, being
sought by the Turkish courts under charges of homicide and incitement
to homicide. There is thus a red corner bulletin for him issued by the
Interpol. In accordance with a court decision given in 1990, Germany
also had an arrest warrant on Öcalan again for homicide and incitement
to homicide.
All democratic, law-abiding countries as well as international
institutions are obligated to take a consistent and firm stance in
combating terrorism and bringing terrorists to justice. Under
obligations and commitments within the framework of the United
Nations, the Council of Europe, the OSCE, the NATO, and the EU, no
country or government can provide terrorists with safe-haven or evade
its responsibilities in the efforts to eliminate terrorism. Therefore,
Öcalan should never be granted political asylum anywhere and he has to
be extradited to Turkey to face trial for his crimes against Turkish
citizens.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk5.htm
PKK's Involvement in Organized Crimes
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The PKK engages in organized crimes such as drug trafficking and arms
smuggling, extortion, human smuggling, abduction of children and money
laundering in an attempt to recruit militants and to obtain financial
resources needed to carry out its terrorist activities.
The "Sputnik Operation" conducted in a coordinated fashion in some
European countries in September 1996 exposed PKK's links with
organized crime and money laundering activities.
On the other hand, it is known that the PKK, together with other
organized crime gangs, is also behind the recent wave of illegal
immigration to Italy. PKK's objective is to create international
pressure and antipathy against Turkey.
Moreover, the PKK plays an important role in drug trafficking which
constitutes one of the most evil crimes of our age. The British weekly
magazine "The Spectator" underlined this fact in its 28 November-5
December 1998 issue by saying that "?According to the British security
services sources the PKK is responsible for 40 percent of the heroin
sold in the European Union?" .
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk6.htm
Drug Trafficking and Terrorist Organizations
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
All terrorist organizations need to raise funds to sustain their
violent activities and resort to illegal means to finance their
crimes. Drug trafficking comes at the top of this list of illegal
money raising activities, followed by robbery, extortion, kidnapping,
blackmailing and arms smuggling.
In recent years, it has become increasingly evident that terrorism and
drug trafficking are intertwined. The terms "narco-terrorism" and
"narco-terrorists" have started to gain circulation in describing the
link between terrorist organizations and narcotics smugglers. This
fact is illustrated by certain international documents. The UN
Convention Against Illicit Traffic In Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic
Substances (1988) refers to the relationship between illicit drug
traffic and other organized criminal activities which undermine the
stability, security and legitimacy of sovereign states.
Paragraph 5 of the UN International Narcotics Control Board (INCB)'s
1992 report points out that "illicit cultivation of narcotic plants
and illicit trafficking in drugs continue to be a threat to the
political, economic and social stability of several countries. Links
appear to exist between illicit cultivation and drug trafficking and
the activities of subversive organizations in some countries."
The 1993 INCB report draws attention to the organic connections
between drug cartels and terrorist organizations, and also to the
globalization of drug smuggling. The successive INCB reports point out
that these drug cartels concentrate their activities in ethnically and
economically troubled regions of the world. It is no coincidence that
terrorist organizations thrive in the very same regions.
The Vienna Declaration and Program of Action adopted at the World
Conference on Human Rights (25 June 1993) stresses that "the acts,
methods and practices of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations
as well as linkage in some countries to drug trafficking are
activities aimed at the destruction of human rights, fundamental
freedoms and democracy, threatening territorial integrity, security of
states and destabilizing legitimately constituted governments, and the
international community should take the necessary steps to enhance
cooperation to prevent and combat terrorism."
The Final Communiqué of the Council of Europe Pompidou Group 2nd
Pan-European Ministerial Conference (Strasbourg, 4 February 1994)
underlines the fact that "considering the continuous increase in and
the spread of drug trafficking incidents, the involvement of violent
organizations in such activities constitute a serious threat to the
contemporary society" (Art.9), and thus, "it is vital for the security
forces to combat terrorism effectively" (Art.l5).
The UN Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism
adopted at the 49th session of the General Assembly, underlines the
concern by the international community at the growing and dangerous
links between terrorists groups, drug traffickers and their
paramilitary gangs which have resorted to all types of violence, thus
endangering the constitutional order of States and violating basic
human rights. This Declaration also emphasizes the desirability of
closer cooperation and coordination among States in combating crimes
closely connected with terrorism, including drug trafficking, unlawful
arms trade, money laundering and smuggling of nuclear and other
potentially deadly materials.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk8.htm
Foreign Press Reports
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* In January 1992, the Bremen Police arrested a "Kurd" selling drugs.
The police found a bunch of keys in his pocket, which belonged to an
apartment where "Kurds" lived. Hanging on the walls of the said
apartment were posters of the PKK and its leader Abdullah Öcalan. The
police also found some clues suggesting that the PKK finances its
armed struggle by the heroin trade (SAT-1 TV, 24 Hours, 6 January
1992).
* In 1992, a total number of 2,069 drug addicts died in Germany. In
the same year, the German police apprehended some children aged 10-12,
coming from southeastern Turkey and selling drugs in Hamburg. A child
of 8 carrying a firearm was also arrested. All these children
confessed that the PKK was using them to sell drugs, since they did
not have penal responsibility. The police seized 30 kg. of heroin from
a "Kurd" who was said to have transferred DM 150,000 to his partners.
The estimated figure the PKK earns from the narcotics trade is more
than 56 million DM (VOX TV ; Germany, 12 February 1993).
* In 1993, more than 50 PKK members were arrested by the Essen Police
of Germany. The Federal Criminal Department in Wiesbaden found out
that the PKK was organizing drug trafficking in Germany and the
narcotics trade in Hamburg, Bremen, Frankfurt and Essen was under the
control of the PKK (German Daily "NRZ," 30 March 1993).
* The Hamburg Criminal Police arrested a band of Kurdish drug
smugglers on 15 September 1993. 11-year-old children, who were also
arrested with the other members of the band, later confessed to the
police that the PKK illegally brought them from Turkey to Germany in
order to make them sell drugs for the organization (Hamburg Local TV
Broadcast, 15 September 1993).
* Three years of intensive police investigation by the Slagelse Police
and the Narcotics Section of the National Police Force in Denmark
resulted in the solution of several armed robberies whose spoils were
used to finance narcotics purchases. The police captured a Danish
person, who had links with two Turkish narcotics kingpins living in
Denmark. During the trial the close relationship between these people
and the PKK was proven. The superintendent Niels Bech of the National
Police Force expressed that large parts of the profits from the
narcotics sales in Denmark have returned to Turkey. In one case DDK
140,000 were sent to Turkey and kilos of heroin was sent to Europe in
return (Danish Daily, "Berlingske Tidende," 31 October 1993).
* Two young PKK members (aged 14 and 16) were caught by the police
selling drugs at the Trabrennbahn Train Station near Wandsbeck on 26
September 1994 ("Bild-Hamburg" 28 September 1994).
* On 5-6 October 1994 the "Bild" reported that narcotics were being
distributed from Jork in Alten Land to Northern Germany and that the
Kurdish dealers transferred 15 million DM to their collaborators in
Turkey.
* On 24 October 1994 the German magazine "Focus" wrote that in the
last 9 years 315 PKK members were involved in drug trafficking around
Europe, 154 of whom were captured in Germany.
* Ralf Brottscheller, the Senator of Interior of Bremen, accused the
PKK of extortion and organized narcotics smuggling ("Focus," 18
September 1995).
* In France, the Aulnay Sous Bois Public Security Units and Paris
Bureau of Combating Narcotics Trafficking conducted an operation which
was completed after long and careful preparations of 18 months. 30
people involved in narcotics trafficking on behalf of the PKK and the
Mafia active in France and Belgium were taken into custody after the
operation (French Press, 4 November 1996).
* The Belgian Gendarmerie raided a camp in Zutendaal/Genk, in which
the PKK militants were being trained, and apprehended 35 people,
including children and some internationally wanted criminals
("Arnhemse Courant," 22 November 1996).
* The administrators of a facade company helping the PKK's activities
in France were taken into custody in Paris (French Press, 25 February
1997).
* The "Observatoire Geopolitique Des Drogues" noted in its monthly
report that the biggest heroin seizure in Hungary to date was made on
December 12, 1996, aboard a Turkish bus belonging to the Toros Line
company. The Turkish traffickers, caught with 42 kg. heroin turned out
to be "Kurds." The report mentions the case of a Romanian citizen who,
upon his arrest with 2 kg. heroin by the Turkish police in Edirne in
September 1995, admitted that he was running for the PKK drugs in one
direction and explosives in the other.
The report also notes that 65 percent of the drugs confiscated by the
Romanian customs officers are found on passenger vehicles and that
"every time Romanian police make a drug haul at a Turkish company,
Kurds are involved" ("The Geopolitical Drug Dispatch", No. 65, March
1997).
* A high level member of the PKK, known as the PKK chief in the
Hannover area, was arrested in Berlin. He had been wanted by the
German police on charges of arson attacks, and damage to private
property. The police found out evidence regarding the PKK's
involvement in illicit labor trafficking ("Berliner Zeitung" 4 April
1997).
* 20 refugees were arrested in a police raid on a refugee hostel which
was discovered to be a PKK base, in Grimma, Bahren. The operation was
conducted jointly by the German police and experts from the Federal
Criminal Department. The police confiscated various fire arms,
thousands of DM and receipts. These immigrants were actively involved
in the activities of the PKK and its facade branches (German Press, 4
April 1997).
* The Bavarian police conducted a series of operations against the PKK
militants in refugee camps, arrested 2, and took into custody 17 of
them (Statement by Straubing Police Directorate dated 17 June 1997).
* The PKK transfers people, weapons and drugs through the FRY (Former
Republic of Yugoslavia) and purchases weapons in return (Croatian
daily "Vjesnik" August 1997).
* The "Focus" magazine remarked on 23 March 1998 that members of the
PKK invested the money laundered from drug trafficking and extortion
in the real estate market in Celle, Germany.
* On August 1, 1998, the Croatian and Slovenian security forces
jointly confiscated 38 kg. of heroin in a vehicle bound for western
Europe. According to the Croatian reports, the shipment of the heroin
was realized by Turkish citizens "who are most probably members of the
PKK" This is consistent with the statements made by Slovenian security
forces who have pointed to a "reasonable suspicion" that a member of
the PKK is involved in the smuggling (Croatian and Slovenian press
reviews, 6 August 1998).
* Four "Kurdish" people were captured with 2.6 kg. heroin, the largest
amount of narcotics ever captured in west Norway. It is thought that
the four people caught were merely couriers and that the trafficking
was carried out by a "Turkish/Kurdish" network (Bergen, 7 August
1998).
* "?The PKK has financed its war against Turkey by extortion and the
sale of heroin, and according to British security service sources it
is responsible for 40 percent of the heroin sold in the European
Union?" (British weekly magazine "The Spectator", 28 November-5
December 1998 issue).
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk9.htm
Reports of Foreign Police and Foreign Officials
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* In January 1990, a PKK member was arrested in Switzerland for
selling drugs on behalf of the PKK. In the same month a 13-year-old
person, also linked to the PKK, was captured in the Netherlands and
was released as being too young to prosecute.
* A Turkish citizen of Kurdish origin, apprehended in France on 22
January 1991, confessed that he had been trading drugs in France on
behalf of the PKK and that the drugs were transported by trucks or
sometimes by tourist vehicles and then distributed to different cities
not only in France but in various other countries in Europe as well.
* After being arrested on 7 March 1991 in France, a "Kurdish" person
confessed that the drugs he was selling belonged to the PKK.
* Another Turkish citizen of "Kurdish" descent, captured with 48 kg.
of heroin in Arnheim in November 1991, was found out to be a PKK
member.
* The German Police reports underline the fact that l,103 kg. of
heroin was seized by the police in 1991 and 400 of 735 suspects
involved in the drug trading incidents were PKK members. This ratio
mounted to 450/735 in 1992 and 300/457 in 1993.
* The US Department of State Bureau of International Narcotics Matters
expressed in its International Narcotics Control Strategy Report
(1992) that the two-thirds of the people involved in drug trafficking
incidents in Europe are PKK-oriented.
* An active PKK member working as a truck driver, who was known to
have stood as a candidate in Bonn in the 1992 elections for the PKK's
so-called National Assembly, was seized in Troisdorf, Germany, while
transporting substantial amounts of drugs.
* In 1993, the police seized 200 kg. of heroin in London. Further
investigation revealed that the drug traders were working for the PKK.
* A police operation in Offenbach, Germany on 7 January 1993, led to
the seizure of 5 kilos of heroin. Among the seven people captured by
the police was a person known as the "PKK's accountant."
* As a consequence of the operations conducted by the German police in
Hamburg, Bremen and Bad Bramstad during May-October 1993, 15.7 kg. of
heroin was confiscated and 22 people were apprehended, including PKK
members and supporters. The criminals turned out to have requested
political asylum from the German authorities.
* 15 Turkish citizens with "Kurdish" descent were arrested in
connection with 1.6 kg. heroin seized by the German police in
Recklinghausen, Germany, on 27 October 1993. Among those were the
participants at pro-PKK demonstrations in Turkey.
* A message by the German Interpol dated October 26, 1993, pointed out
that six Turkish citizens with Kurdish origin were arrested on charges
of laundering the proceeds from drug trafficking in the Netherlands,
Spain, Italy and Germany. Large sums of cash, thought to be laundered
money, were captured by the German police.
* Another Turkish citizen of "Kurdish" origin, captured in Caracas,
Venezuela on 10 November 1993, while carrying 3.5 kg. of cocaine,
confessed that she was a PKK courier. This incident is said to prove
the links of the PKK with the drug cartels even in Latin America.
* The NCIS estimated that the 44 percent of 1993 budget of the PKK as
430 million French Francs, came from illicit drug trafficking.
* During a six-week campaign initiated by the Stuttgart city police in
January 1994, 76 people were apprehended, including some who had been
formerly prosecuted in Turkey because of their links with the
terrorist organization.
* On 17 August 1994 the German Criminal Authority informed the Turkish
Security Authorities that a political refugee, resident in Kiel, was
engaged in drug trade and money transfer to the PKK.
* The US Deputy Secretary of State in charge of narcotics, Ambassador
Robert Felbard, answering a question at a press briefing in February
1994 regarding the PKK supervision of drug trafficking in Europe and
the United States, stated that the US had quite a bit of information
about the PKK's involvement in the trafficking of heroin into Europe.
* The Amsterdam police, during an anti-drug operation on 11 December
1994, seized numerous firearms, machine guns, bombs and PKK documents
and arrested several PKK militants.
* The Bavarian Minister of Interior, Günter Beckstein, referring to
the 30 PKK militants captured in Europe during the last two years,
stated that the PKK has taken control of the European narcotics market
(Turkish daily, "Cumhuriyet," 31 July 1995).
* The Director of German Terrorism Research Forum, Rolp Tophoven, has
stated that a large majority of the people arrested on charges of
narcotics smuggling are of "Kurdish" descent, many of whom confess
committing the crime on behalf of the terrorist PKK (Turkish daily,
"Yeni Yüzy?l," 12 November 1995).
* Olivier Foll, another expert on international terrorism, noted that
the PKK members, when apprehended for illegal possession of narcotics,
confess to smuggling drugs for the PKK and exploit the "political"
dimension of the issue as an excuse for their crimes. Mr. Foll
criticized the "Kurdish" policies of some European statesmen who grant
concessions to the PKK (Turkish daily "Yeni Yüzy?l," 12 November
1995).
* During the Sputnik operation of September 18, 1996, the Belgian
police seized 350 million Belgian Francs that were thought to have
been the proceeds from narcotics trafficking. Seven people having ties
with the PKK were apprehended in connection with the crime. The
Sputnik operation also revealed that the MED-TV, the mouthpiece of the
PKK, is involved in PKK's money laundering activities. The MED-TV
representative in Germany was taken into custody as he was unable to
explain the source of the 500 million BF, used in financing the
station. It was later found that he was using revenues from drug
trafficking for financing not only the MED-TV but also the so-called
"Kurdistan Parliament in Exile" (KPE). The Belgian police seized many
firearms in the KPE building they searched.
* In August 1997, the German police conducted a comprehensive
operation against the PKK members in Cologne in which six members of
the PKK were arrested. After the operation, Cologne police officers
issued a statement emphsizing the fact that the PKK is involved in
organized crime including extortion in Germany to finance its acts of
terrorism.
* The Göttingen police of Germany, after a 14-month investigation,
managed to penetrate the drug smuggling network with two "Kurdish"
informers in May 1998 and found out that the revenues from 40 kg. of
heroin marketed were channeled to the PKK.
* The KDP (The Kurdistan Democratic Party of Masud Barzani) forces
discovered extensive narcotics farms in the Gali Pes Agha region of
northern Iraq, captured from the PKK in May 1997.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk10.htm
Turkish Police Reports
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* A PKK member, captured by the police with 14.5 kg. of heroin on 1
September 1993, confessed that he was acting on behalf of the PKK
abroad, and that he was a drug-smuggler, transferring 30 percent of
the proceeds to the terrorist organization.
* Following the confiscation of 20.3 kg. of heroin in Duisburg,
Germany, two PKK supporters were arrested by the German police. This
triggered a police investigation in Turkey, which led to the seizure
of firearms and munitions in a vehicle owned by the same family in the
city of Mersin on 12 May 1993.
* A PKK militant of Iranian origin confessed that the terrorist
organization has drug production facilities in Iran and that Osman
Öcalan (the brother of Abdullah Öcalan and a leading figure of the
terrorist organization PKK) is in charge of the production of
narcotics which are later marketed mainly in Europe to raise money for
the organization.
* Two PKK militants, arrested with 30 kg. of heroin, expressed that
they were aiming to sell the drugs to provide financial contributions
to the PKK.
* The Turkish Security Forces seized 120 kg. of heroin and 40 kg. of
hemp seeds (cannabis) in a PKK shelter in southeastern Turkey.
* One PKK member, who was put in jail on 3 July 1993 for getting
involved in the terrorist acts of the PKK in Hakkari and released on
20 October 1993, was captured with 36 kg. of heroine, 140 kg. of
precursors and some other drug-producing material.
* Another member of the PKK, sentenced to 6 years of imprisonment,
confessed that he was in charge of establishing the links between the
drug smugglers and the terrorist organization.
* During the operations conducted by the Turkish security forces, two
people, captured with 48 kg. of hashish, were arrested as they were
found out to be involved in narco-trade so as to provide financial
support to the PKK.
* Another Turkish citizen said to be of "Kurdish-origin", caught by
the police in possession of 117 kilos of hashish in Istanbul, was
later found to have participated in the PKK-led attack on the Turkish
Consulate General in Frankfurt on March 1l, 1992.
* One Turkish citizen of "Kurdish-origin" apprehended in July 1994
confessed that he was involved in drug trafficking to raise money for
the PKK. The police, making use of the information he disclosed, were
able to arrest some other members of the terrorist organization.
* On 1 August 1994 a PKK member, apprehended in Diyarbak?r with 2 kg.
of heroin, acknowledged that he was selling drugs for the PKK. He also
informed the police that some PKK members were cultivating drugs and
gave the names of the places where hemp seeds (cannabis) were grown.
In further investigation the police captured 120,000 roots of hemp
seeds in a village named Dibek.
* On 21 August 1994 the Turkish security forces apprehended two people
with 150 kg. of hashish and considerable amounts of hemp seeds and
hashish growing material. The security forces also captured PKK
documents and propaganda material and two machine guns.
* Diyarbak?r Police, conducting an operation against the PKK on 17
July 1994, apprehended three people with 80 kg. of hashish, PKK
documents, a gun and three ERNK seals. These people confessed that the
PKK ordered them to sell the drugs and purchase firearms and food
supplies for the organization. The said people turned out to have
participated in various terror acts such as the rocket attack to and
storming of a police residence in Lice on 29 June, the bomb attack on
the residence of a judge in Diyarbak?r on 16 January 1994, and a bomb
attack on a police patrol car.
* Seven people captured in the city of Cizre on 23 March 1994 with
398.5 kilos of heroin confessed to smuggling narcotics on behalf of
the PKK.
* The security forces have had strong evidence suggesting that a
network composed of PKK militants is involved in drug trading in Zaho,
northern Iraq. The network is known to hand the drugs over to clients
either in Zaho or in Turkey. Therefore, it was not very surprising
that during the operation by the Turkish Armed Forces in northern Iraq
against the PKK, the Turkish army discovered a large farm where the
terrorists cultivated hemp (cannabis). The farm was located near the
PKK's Pirvela Camp in the Bahara valley. The Turkish military officers
announced that the amount of drugs captured during the operation in
northern Iraq reached 4.5 tons.
* In a raid on 7 March 1995 on the residence of a person, suspected by
the police of having contact with the PKK militants, the Turkish
police seized large amounts of drugs, drug precursor chemicals,
firearms and ammunitions.
* Three of the seven people caught with 21.5 kilos of heroin in
Hamburg, Germany, have been found out to have been formerly arrested
in Turkey on charges of PKK membership.
* The two people caught by the police with 20.6 kilos of narcotics in
?zmir on August 5, 1996, have been found out to be running an
association linked to the PKK in the Netherlands.
* Another PKK sympathizer, who was captured with acetic anhydride, a
heroin precursor chemical, by the Turkish security forces in the city
of Van on March 24, 1998, was found to have been previously arrested
for providing logistic support to the PKK.
* The Turkish security forces have strong evidence that the PKK
militants, settled in the Iranian part of our common border, receive
commissions from the narcotics smugglers called "taxes or donations."
***
The role of the PKK in incidents given above is undeniable, both
because of the documents seized by the security forces and the
backgrounds of the arrested people. Still, in certain Western
countries, the activities of this terrorist organization, are
regrettably being tolerated.
After the prohibition of PKK in France and Germany towards the end of
1993, a wave of optimism emerged in Turkish public opinion that the
rest of the European countries would follow suit by adopting similar
measures. This, however, has not happened to date. Yet, it is clear
that the prohibition of the PKK and its front organizations in
European countries would also be in the interest of these countries.
The PKK is responsible for narcotics trafficking, extortion, robbery,
and illicit arms and human smuggling activities, and thus circumvent
the rule of law and compromises the security and stability of the
countries in which it operates. It is no coincidence that drug
trafficking cases predominantly occur in those countries where the
organization of the PKK is extensive and tolerated.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk11.htm
Is There A "Kurdish Question" in Turkey?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
As the first melting pot and encounter point of many different
civilizations and cultures, present-day Turkey contains a multitude of
ethnic, religious and cultural elements. Turkey is proud of its great
heritage. This centuries-long shared way of life is perfectly
second-nature for the people of Turkey.
Yet, different ethnic identities, including the Kurdish, are
acknowledged and accepted in Turkey. The state does not categorize its
citizens along ethnic lines nor does it impose an ethnic identity on
them. Population censuses in Turkey never count people on the basis of
their ethnic origins. But, this does not prevent an individual citizen
to identify himself or herself in terms of a specific ethnic category.
That is a private affair and ultimately a matter of personal
preference. Public expressions and manifestations of ethnic identity
are prohibited neither by law nor by social custom. Folklore is rich
and colorful and local variations, customs and traditions are
protected and supported.
Turkey is a constitutional state governed by the rule of law.
Democracy rests on a parliamentary system of government, respect for
human rights and on the supremacy of law. Multi-party politics, free
elections, a growing tradition of local government mark the democratic
way of life in Turkey.
Constitutional citizenship is one of the principles upon which the
Turkish state was founded. The Turkish Constitution stipulates that
the State and the Nation are indivisible, and that all citizens
irrespective of their ethnic, racial or religious origin, are equal
before the law.
For historical and cultural reasons, and under stipulations of binding
international treaties, the concept of "minority" applies specifically
to certain groups of non-Moslem citizens. In fact, the social fabric
of Turkey is a unique real life case of the OSCE principle that "not
all ethnic, cultural, linguistic or religious differences necessarily
lead to the creation of national minorities". Our citizens of Kurdish
ethnic origin are not discriminated against and they feel themselves
to be equal members of the society. Many have risen to the highest
positions in the Republic. They share the same opportunities and the
same destiny as the rest of the population.
Ethnicity is not a factor in the political geography of Turkey. That
is, the predominant majority of the Turkish citizens of Kurdish
descent live in western Turkey, with the greatest concentration being
in Istanbul. Even in eastern and southeastern Turkey, the Turkish
citizens of Kurdish ethnic origin do not constitute a majority. The
unitary structure of the State reflects the equality and togetherness
of different geographic regions of Turkey.
Therefore, it is simply neither understandable nor acceptable for
Turkey to discuss "the respect for social, economic and legitimate
political aspirations of Kurds" as if the Turkish citizens of Kurdish
ethnic descent constitute a different and separate community. They are
citizens of a nation that has been sharing for centuries the same
values with respect to language, religion, culture and patriotic
identity, common history and the will for a mutual future.
It is of cardinal importance to differentiate between a militant
organization, which resorts systematically to terrorism as well as all
kinds of organized crime, and the phenomenon of Kurdish ethnicity. It
is evident that our citizens of Kurdish ethnic origin are law-abiding
people. Most of them live in western Turkey, drawn by economic
attraction. They are of their own choice integrated into the society
and its economic, social and cultural aspects. In Turkey, citizens of
all ethnic origins can rise to the highest political positions and
ranks such as cabinet ministers and members of parliament. Throughout
the centuries, much mixing has taken place through intermarriages.
Progress in industrial, cultural and social fields, as well as
urbanization, has also contributed to the voluntary and natural
process of integration.
The population in southeast Anatolia, like our citizens in other
regions of the country, participate fully in the political life of
Turkey; they freely make their voices heard in local administrations,
in the municipalities, the Parliament, and the central government
through elected representatives. It is nothing out of the ordinary for
the individuals of different ethnic origins to participate in the
political life of the country. Even the most militant circles concede
the fact that there are no obstacles to social mobility of individuals
from different ethnic origins to any profession or career, whether
public or private.
The fundamental rights and freedoms of all Turkish citizens are
secured by the relevant provisions of the Constitution. However, those
rights have been threatened by the PKK, creating terror among the
populace.
None of our citizens of Kurdish ethnic origin, notwithstanding
allegations to the contrary, who publicly or politically asserts
his/her Kurdish ethnic identity risks harassment or persecution.
However, acts or statements made against the "territorial integrity"
of Turkey are subject to legal prosecution under the law. If these
allegations were true, none of the publications in Kurdish whose
contents are full of assertions of Kurdish ethnic identity would have
been tolerated by the authorities.
In the same vein, Turkey is often accused of refusing to negotiate
with the terrorist organization PKK. These accusations contradict the
fundamental rules of international law. Negotiating with a terrorist
organization, responsible for thousands of murders, would be
tantamount to justifying and encouraging terrorism.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk12.htm
Is the Use of Kurdish Banned in Turkey ?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Contrary to the allegations of some biased quarters, there is no
restriction on the use of languages in Turkey. Presently, there are
many private radio-TV stations broadcasting and numerous books and
journals published both in Turkish and in various dialects of
"Kurdish" throughout the country. It should be mentioned here that
"Kurdish" can be hardly depicted as "a single language" linguistically
or socially. Many scholars point out the fact that there are many
different local languages and dialects used in southeastern Turkey
such as Zaza and Kirmanchi which are only as close to each other as
French and English. These local languages and dialects are so
dissimilar that people living in one village cannot even communicate
with others from a neighboring village. As a result, Turkish has
become the sole medium of communication in the region. It is ironic
that Turkish is also used in PKK's militant training camps and in the
communication between its headquarters and terrorists as their common
language.
The official language of the Republic of Turkey is Turkish, but
Armenian, Ladino, Greek, the different dialects of "Kurdish", etc. are
spoken freely in daily life. There is only one official language in
the country. However, in this respect Turkey does not constitute a
unique and exceptional case either in Europe or among other democratic
countries.
It should also be underlined that expressions of ethnic identity such
as the use of local languages are viewed as private domain matters.
Thus, they are not the subject of law and are therefore not regulated
by the state. The Turkish language is the language of the Republic of
Turkey and is consequently the only formal language of education and
instruction. The same is true in most democracies. Though it is
possible to help promote them, it is neither realistic nor feasible to
make local tongues official languages of the State.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk13.htm
Socio-Economic Development of Southeastern Turkey and the
Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The Atatürk Dam is the largest component of the Southeastern Anatolia
Project (GAP).
The Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP), consisting of a complex
system of dams, waterworks, irrigation and hydraulic energy network is
a colossal investment of Turkey, the biggest regional initiative ever
attempted in Turkey. It aims at changing the whole complexion of the
arid geography and consequently, the social and economic backwardness
of southeastern Anatolia. The Turkish Government has always believed
that one of the best tools in the struggle against terrorism is
economic development. It is no accident that the region in which the
PKK operates is also the least economically developed part of Turkey.
The Turkish Government is determined to rectify that.
It is a fact that there are socio-economic regional imbalances in
Turkey as in every developing, even some developed countries. Rough
geographic and climatic conditions of southeastern Turkey are the main
factors in this imbalance. Terrorism and economic backwardness of the
region affect all our citizens indiscriminately. Despite many
governmental incentives and low taxation policies, the private sector
had in the past been reluctant to invest in the region, mainly due to
security concerns. Public sector has taken the place of the private
sector and many investments have already been realized by the State.
"GAP" is the best example of that. Government investment in this
region is much higher than the amount of taxes collected there. "GAP"
is a gigantic economic step forward which will change the destiny of
the region. Agricultural production of Turkey will rise by several
folds when this project, which is both energy and irrigation oriented,
is completed. Yet, its important impact is not expected only on
agricultural production, but also on industry, construction, services,
as well as on the Gross Regional Product and employment. When the
project is completed, per capita income will increase three times, and
3.3 million jobs will be created.
The Southeastern Anatolia Project constitutes an integrated project
which contributes significantly to the realization of national targets
for the utilization of development potentials, self-induced economic
growth, social stability and enhancement of export possibilities, and
at the same time aims at the promotion of the principle of sustainable
human development; thus, human development is the core of sustainable
development in the "GAP" region. In this context, the "GAP Social
Action Plan" consists of the basic policies, targets, strategies and
implementation measures for ensuring the social development of the
region through a human-centered approach emphasizing sustainability of
the development. This people-centered development aims to remove the
gap between the project area and the more developed regions in Turkey
and to promote equitable development.
This ambitious socio-economic development drive also explains why the
PKK has been targeting civilians as well as economic and social
projects. PKK's aim is both to terrorize the local population and to
keep the region economically and socially backward so as to recruit
more militants into its own ranks. However, this is being reversed as
the GAP began to bear its fruits. For example, although the so-called
head of the PKK is from ?anl?urfa, there has never been a terrorist
act there, because it is an economically powerful settlement. The
state of emergency still has to continue in some of the provinces of
southeastern Turkey. It is the direct consequence and explicit proof
of the PKK terrorism in the region. It is of utmost importance for
Turkey to augment the allocation of human and financial resources for
the socio-economic development of this region. The precondition to
achieve this task is the eradication of the PKK terrorist
organization.
Eradication of terrorism will not only put an end to the deliberate
devastation by terrorists of the underdeveloped regions of Turkey, but
also release important resources for developmental activity in those
very regions. While terrorism might be viewed as a consequence of
certain underlying causes, it is also incontestably true that
terrorism is itself the main reason of poverty and underdevelopment of
those areas where it is perpetrated.
In sum, our citizens of all ethnic origins -Turkish, Kurdish and
others- living together for more than ten centuries in Turkey have
created a society of patriotic citizens sharing common values. They
established their own nation-state, the Turkish Republic, following
the War of Independence. Ethnic descent is not considered a cause of
discrimination or privilege just as in all modern nation States on the
globe.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
mark rivers
2004-10-27 16:25:59 UTC
Permalink
Post by Ali Asker
Two-part Circulation
The body's circulation has two parts, with the heart acting as a
double pump. Blood from the right side pump is dark red (bluish) and
low in
http://www.kbl.com.tr/pkk/pkk-greece/gr-org.htm


THE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE PKK IN GREECE

The PKK carries out its activities in Greece through two ERNK (Kurdish
acronym of the PKK's propaganda wing, "National Liberation Front of
Kurdistan") offices, two "Kurdistan Committees", one "Kurdistan
Cultural Center" and a "Kurdish Red Crescent Office", which are all
subsidiaries of this terrorist organization. Through these so-called
offices, committees and centers the PKK has established in Greece a
network which serves its logistical and operational needs as well as
its propaganda in its terrorist campaign against Turkey.

Due to its geographical position, Greece serves as a bridge in
the transit of PKK militants between Western Europe and the Middle
East. In this regard Greece plays for the PKK a role comparable to
that of Syria and territories under Syrian control where the head of
the PKK and PKK militants have for years benefited from the sanctuary
and facilities provided to them. Since the agreement reached between
Turkey and Syria on 20 October 1998 in Adana, Turkey, whereby Syria
designated the PKK as a terrorist organization and undertook to
eradicate PKK presence and activities on its territory, Greece stands
alone among the neighbours of Turkey where the PKK has an officially
sanctioned free hand.

Greece is a country where the PKK militants are sheltered and
given terrorist training in safe-houses, in camps disguised as
"Refugee Treatment Centers" or "farmhouses" on a temporary basis for
periods of 2-3 months. This is a very serious violation of
international rules and norms, involving the use of Greek territory by
a terrorist organization to prepare acts of terror against its
neighbour.

Öcalan is on record to have said that he and the leadership of
the PKK had been invited to relocate in Greece by the Papandreu
Government. He has added that geographically Greece would not be
convenient for conducting PKK activities in Turkey, but that efforts
would be underway to establish PKK training camps in Greece and
particularly in South Cyprus by August 1994. This invitation must have
left an unforgettable mark in Öcalan's mind as it was Greece where he
sought sanctuary and political asylum when he was forced to leave
Syria in October 1998 and again when he was desperately seeking a safe
haven for himself in January 1999 before being squeezed out of Rome.

On 5 April 1994, the PKK was allowed to open a representative
office of its own in Athens, called "the ERNK representation in Athens
and the Balkans." The PKK banner was hoisted in front of this ERNK
office. A number of well-known Greek politicians attended the office's
opening ceremony, including Panayiotis Sgouridis, Deputy Speaker of
the Greek Parliament, and four other members of parliament --
Dimitrios Vounatsos, Michaelis Galeneanos, Yiannis Spathopoulos and
Maria Mahera Haralambidis. A senior member of PASOK's Central
Committee was also present in the ceremony.

Greek officials have persistently attempted to depict the ERNK,
the facade behind which the PKK criminal network operates in Europe,
as a "Kurdish political organization" with a view to concealing their
support to the terrorist organization. In a 1988 document entitled
"The Mass Character of Our Party and Front", the PKK describes the
duties of the ERNK under ten headings. According to this illuminating
document, among other duties of the ERNK, special emphasis is placed
upon issues such as organizing mass activities (raids, occupations,
demonstrations), recruiting militants to turn them into "fighters",
providing combat training to these terrorists, maintaining contacts
with other armed groups, gathering intelligence and creating financial
resources for the terrorist organization through extortion, drug
trafficking and human smuggling. In PKK's own words, its militants are
"fighting under the flag of the ERNK and armed with the weapons of the
ARGK (the armed wing of the PKK).

Another ERNK office under the name of the so-called "Kurdistan
Solidarity Committee" has also been operating in Thessalonica (Egnatia
Street No.75) since 14 November 1994. This ERNK office has been active
in particular in organizing PKK's propaganda campaigns.

These ERNK offices in Greece see no harm in even openly selling
the propaganda documents of the terror organization and issuing
receipts printed under the name of ERNK, given in return for the
so-called "donations" that are in fact forcibly collected. Some have
been mailed also to the Turkish Embassy in Athens (Annex 1).
Jason K. Lambrou
2004-10-27 18:09:08 UTC
Permalink
mark rivers wrote:
You swine. You filthy little maggot. What is that tripe you call an
opinion? What is that scrofulous little tumor you call a brain? Don't
you know that you are pathetic? You worthless bag of filth, you wad of
pus. You're a canker, a sore that won't go away. I would rather kiss a
goat than be seen with you.
Post by mark rivers
Post by Ali Asker
Two-part Circulation
The body's circulation has two parts, with the heart acting as a
double pump. Blood from the right side pump is dark red (bluish) and
low in
http://www.kbl.com.tr/pkk/pkk-greece/gr-org.htm
THE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE PKK IN GREECE
The PKK carries out its activities in Greece through two ERNK (Kurdish
acronym of the PKK's propaganda wing, "National Liberation Front of
Kurdistan") offices, two "Kurdistan Committees", one "Kurdistan
Cultural Center" and a "Kurdish Red Crescent Office", which are all
subsidiaries of this terrorist organization. Through these so-called
offices, committees and centers the PKK has established in Greece a
network which serves its logistical and operational needs as well as
its propaganda in its terrorist campaign against Turkey.
Due to its geographical position, Greece serves as a bridge in
the transit of PKK militants between Western Europe and the Middle
East. In this regard Greece plays for the PKK a role comparable to
that of Syria and territories under Syrian control where the head of
the PKK and PKK militants have for years benefited from the sanctuary
and facilities provided to them. Since the agreement reached between
Turkey and Syria on 20 October 1998 in Adana, Turkey, whereby Syria
designated the PKK as a terrorist organization and undertook to
eradicate PKK presence and activities on its territory, Greece stands
alone among the neighbours of Turkey where the PKK has an officially
sanctioned free hand.
Greece is a country where the PKK militants are sheltered and
given terrorist training in safe-houses, in camps disguised as
"Refugee Treatment Centers" or "farmhouses" on a temporary basis for
periods of 2-3 months. This is a very serious violation of
international rules and norms, involving the use of Greek territory by
a terrorist organization to prepare acts of terror against its
neighbour.
Öcalan is on record to have said that he and the leadership of
the PKK had been invited to relocate in Greece by the Papandreu
Government. He has added that geographically Greece would not be
convenient for conducting PKK activities in Turkey, but that efforts
would be underway to establish PKK training camps in Greece and
particularly in South Cyprus by August 1994. This invitation must have
left an unforgettable mark in Öcalan's mind as it was Greece where he
sought sanctuary and political asylum when he was forced to leave
Syria in October 1998 and again when he was desperately seeking a safe
haven for himself in January 1999 before being squeezed out of Rome.
On 5 April 1994, the PKK was allowed to open a representative
office of its own in Athens, called "the ERNK representation in Athens
and the Balkans." The PKK banner was hoisted in front of this ERNK
office. A number of well-known Greek politicians attended the office's
opening ceremony, including Panayiotis Sgouridis, Deputy Speaker of
the Greek Parliament, and four other members of parliament --
Dimitrios Vounatsos, Michaelis Galeneanos, Yiannis Spathopoulos and
Maria Mahera Haralambidis. A senior member of PASOK's Central
Committee was also present in the ceremony.
Greek officials have persistently attempted to depict the ERNK,
the facade behind which the PKK criminal network operates in Europe,
as a "Kurdish political organization" with a view to concealing their
support to the terrorist organization. In a 1988 document entitled
"The Mass Character of Our Party and Front", the PKK describes the
duties of the ERNK under ten headings. According to this illuminating
document, among other duties of the ERNK, special emphasis is placed
upon issues such as organizing mass activities (raids, occupations,
demonstrations), recruiting militants to turn them into "fighters",
providing combat training to these terrorists, maintaining contacts
with other armed groups, gathering intelligence and creating financial
resources for the terrorist organization through extortion, drug
trafficking and human smuggling. In PKK's own words, its militants are
"fighting under the flag of the ERNK and armed with the weapons of the
ARGK (the armed wing of the PKK).
Another ERNK office under the name of the so-called "Kurdistan
Solidarity Committee" has also been operating in Thessalonica (Egnatia
Street No.75) since 14 November 1994. This ERNK office has been active
in particular in organizing PKK's propaganda campaigns.
These ERNK offices in Greece see no harm in even openly selling
the propaganda documents of the terror organization and issuing
receipts printed under the name of ERNK, given in return for the
so-called "donations" that are in fact forcibly collected. Some have
been mailed also to the Turkish Embassy in Athens (Annex 1).
Ali Asker
2004-10-28 00:22:59 UTC
Permalink
Post by Jason K. Lambrou
You swine. You filthy little maggot. What is that tripe you call an
opinion? What is that scrofulous little tumor you call a brain? Don't
you know that you are pathetic? You worthless bag of filth, you wad of
pus. You're a canker, a sore that won't go away. I would rather kiss a
goat than be seen with you.
You are hurting markoglu's feelings now! Come kisy kisy and make it up.
Post by Jason K. Lambrou
Post by mark rivers
Post by Ali Asker
Two-part Circulation
The body's circulation has two parts, with the heart acting as a
double pump. Blood from the right side pump is dark red (bluish) and
low in
http://www.kbl.com.tr/pkk/pkk-greece/gr-org.htm
THE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE PKK IN GREECE
The PKK carries out its activities in Greece through two ERNK (Kurdish
acronym of the PKK's propaganda wing, "National Liberation Front of
Kurdistan") offices, two "Kurdistan Committees", one "Kurdistan
Cultural Center" and a "Kurdish Red Crescent Office", which are all
subsidiaries of this terrorist organization. Through these so-called
offices, committees and centers the PKK has established in Greece a
network which serves its logistical and operational needs as well as
its propaganda in its terrorist campaign against Turkey.
Due to its geographical position, Greece serves as a bridge in
the transit of PKK militants between Western Europe and the Middle
East. In this regard Greece plays for the PKK a role comparable to
that of Syria and territories under Syrian control where the head of
the PKK and PKK militants have for years benefited from the sanctuary
and facilities provided to them. Since the agreement reached between
Turkey and Syria on 20 October 1998 in Adana, Turkey, whereby Syria
designated the PKK as a terrorist organization and undertook to
eradicate PKK presence and activities on its territory, Greece stands
alone among the neighbours of Turkey where the PKK has an officially
sanctioned free hand.
Greece is a country where the PKK militants are sheltered and
given terrorist training in safe-houses, in camps disguised as
"Refugee Treatment Centers" or "farmhouses" on a temporary basis for
periods of 2-3 months. This is a very serious violation of
international rules and norms, involving the use of Greek territory by
a terrorist organization to prepare acts of terror against its
neighbour.
Öcalan is on record to have said that he and the leadership of
the PKK had been invited to relocate in Greece by the Papandreu
Government. He has added that geographically Greece would not be
convenient for conducting PKK activities in Turkey, but that efforts
would be underway to establish PKK training camps in Greece and
particularly in South Cyprus by August 1994. This invitation must have
left an unforgettable mark in Öcalan's mind as it was Greece where he
sought sanctuary and political asylum when he was forced to leave
Syria in October 1998 and again when he was desperately seeking a safe
haven for himself in January 1999 before being squeezed out of Rome.
On 5 April 1994, the PKK was allowed to open a representative
office of its own in Athens, called "the ERNK representation in Athens
and the Balkans." The PKK banner was hoisted in front of this ERNK
office. A number of well-known Greek politicians attended the office's
opening ceremony, including Panayiotis Sgouridis, Deputy Speaker of
the Greek Parliament, and four other members of parliament --
Dimitrios Vounatsos, Michaelis Galeneanos, Yiannis Spathopoulos and
Maria Mahera Haralambidis. A senior member of PASOK's Central
Committee was also present in the ceremony.
Greek officials have persistently attempted to depict the ERNK,
the facade behind which the PKK criminal network operates in Europe,
as a "Kurdish political organization" with a view to concealing their
support to the terrorist organization. In a 1988 document entitled
"The Mass Character of Our Party and Front", the PKK describes the
duties of the ERNK under ten headings. According to this illuminating
document, among other duties of the ERNK, special emphasis is placed
upon issues such as organizing mass activities (raids, occupations,
demonstrations), recruiting militants to turn them into "fighters",
providing combat training to these terrorists, maintaining contacts
with other armed groups, gathering intelligence and creating financial
resources for the terrorist organization through extortion, drug
trafficking and human smuggling. In PKK's own words, its militants are
"fighting under the flag of the ERNK and armed with the weapons of the
ARGK (the armed wing of the PKK).
Another ERNK office under the name of the so-called "Kurdistan
Solidarity Committee" has also been operating in Thessalonica (Egnatia
Street No.75) since 14 November 1994. This ERNK office has been active
in particular in organizing PKK's propaganda campaigns.
These ERNK offices in Greece see no harm in even openly selling
the propaganda documents of the terror organization and issuing
receipts printed under the name of ERNK, given in return for the
so-called "donations" that are in fact forcibly collected. Some have
been mailed also to the Turkish Embassy in Athens (Annex 1).
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